MUS 10 Test 4

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Variations on a Theme of Haydn
Composer: Johannes Brahms
Genre: theme & variations
Style Period: Romantic
Performing Forces: piccolo, flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons & contra, horns, trumpets, timpani, triangle, strings
absolute music
Theme
andante
binary form
begins w/ ww like Haydn
5 measure phrase from St. Anthony's Chorale w/ tolling bells
homophonic, pizzicato by lower strings
p & f dynamics
Variation I
poco piu animato
strings w/ arpeggios
5 stroke bell motive (esp. by brass)
string legato rising & falling
mocking-bird effects
Variation II
piu vivace
minor mode
18th & 16th note rhythm (built on rhythmic motive from theme)
forte outbursts
Variation III
con moto
back to major mode
more subdivisions. theme peeks in & out
expansive 8th note phrases
decorative dialogues for repeats (repeats w/ variation in orchestration, dialogues betw ww & strings, trading melodic fragments)
motive treated chromatically
legato, sentimental features
Finale
andante
5- bar passacaglia (Baroque form) based on theme, 8 cycles
tutti & imitative counterpoint
briefly switches to minor to signal end
recapitulation + cascading winds
original closing figure (melody returns) + upward rockets by strings
bass line has themes
bell tones fade
large tutti close
"Furiant" from the Bartered Bride
Composer: Bedrich Smetana
Genre: dance-&-trio
Performing Forces: orchestra
triple meter in half notes & quarter notes (hemiola)
triple during waltz-like trio
rounded binary form
Work: Bartered Bride ballet Act II
Style Period: Romantic
takes place in tavern (peasant subject matter)
Czech language
utilizes hemiola & unusual ostinato (4-bar figure by cellos & bassoons during trio)
ends with "reunion des themes"
lovers Jenik & Marenka, Jenik barters away bride
Romeo and Juliet
Composer: Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
Genre: program music, overture-fantasy
Style Period: Romantic
Performing Forces: piccolo, flutes, clarinets, English horn, bassoons, horns, trumpets, trombones, tuba, timpani, percussion, harp, strings
sonata form (exposition, development, recapitulation, coda)
intro = plainchant, Friar Lawrence
1st theme = sword fight between Capulets & Montagues (begin sonata form)
2nd theme = love theme
ends w/ death sequence
"La Soiree dans Grenade" (Evening in Granada)
Composer: Claude Debussy
Genre: dance-&-trio
Style Period: Modern (Impressionism/Symbolism)
Performing Forces: piano
habanera rhythm ostinato
improv & strumming like guitar
Le Sacre du Printemps (The Rite of Spring)
Introduction & "Dance of the Adolescents"
Composer: Igor Stravinsky
Genre: Russian ballet
Performing forces: large orchestra, foreign instruments
Style Period: Modern
high bassoon solo (unusual range)
primitivism, Pagan ritual of pre-historic Russia
mixed meter
mini fanfares, thick textures
irregular accents
premiered May 29, 1913
David's Lamentation (Chorus & Alabama Sacred Harp)
Composer: William Billings
Genre: anthem (Bible verse)
primitive Americanism
Absalom's death
acapella chorus (SATB)
minor mode
homophonic
shaped-note singing
open 5ths
Semper Fidelis (Always Faithful)
Composer: John Philip Sousa
Genre: Sousa march
Performing Forces: military band
2 strains, trio on IV
coutermelody
arrangement (European-like)
William Billings
David's Lamentation
From New England
1st major American composer
self-made man
began a singing school
focused on primitivism (e.g. open 5ths)
Lili Boulanger
Psalm 24 (Modern)
from Paris
won Prix de Rome (1st woman)
wrote Psalm 24 in Rome
died of pneumonia
Johannes Brahms
Variations on a Theme of Haydn (Theme, Var. I-III, Finale)
Romantic era
Beethoven's successor
From Hamburg, worked in Vienna
mentored by Schumanns
concerned about musical past (Renaissance, Baroque), traditional Classical forms
wrote autonomous, absolute music
Claude Debussy
La Soiree dans Grenade (Evening in Granada)
French (Modern/Impressionism/Symbolist)
used added-note chord
studied Javanese gamelan (gong & percussion), whole-tone scale, pentatonic scale, habanera, flamenco
tone poems
worked with Manuel de Falla
Bedrich Smetana
"Furiant", The Bartered Bride
Bohemian nationalist (Czech)
wrote opera, orchestra, string quartet
John Philip Sousa
Semper fidelis (Always Faithful)
Director of US Marines Band
wrote marches
Europhile & arranger
Igor Stravinsky
Rite of Spring (Introduction & Dance of the Adolescents)
Russian musical adviser for Ballets Russes in Paris
wrote modern ballets
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
Romeo & Juliet
not part of the "Five"
Favored European form
wrote symphonies, waltzes, marches, serenades, & ballets
absolute music
relies solely on elements of music, music is autonomous, no story (vs. program music
Theater des Champs Elysees
Where "Rite of Spring" was performed on May 29, 1913
Vaslav Ninjinksy
Dancer of Ballets Russes
Sergei Diaghilev
founder of Ballets Russes dance company in Paris (hired Stravinsky & Manuel de Falla)
nationalism
emotions of one represent a group, pushes its beliefs
modernism
focus on aesthetics & making a statement, breaks from the past, breakdown of tonality & form, rift betw creator & public
romantic
emotion & imagination, interest in individual, nature, & supernatural, based on literature, breakdown of Classical forms, more harmonic writing, extremes of length
Nadia Boulanger
Musical educator in Paris, taught Lili's songs
primitivism
simple tunes of folk character (e.g. African mask, cubism, David's Lamentation, Rite of Spring)
impressionism
conveys moods & tones of subject matter
hemiola
duple & triple meter in same musical idea
Charles Darwin
Wrote "On the Origin of Species" about evolution
Sigmund Freud
Neurologist known for psychoanalysis
Bohemia
In Czech Republic, nationalist, Bedrich Smetana
Manuel de Falla
friend of Debussy, Spanish composer, wrote for Ballet Russes, modernist
habanera
Cuban style
Mighty Five
central composers in Russian national school
passacaglia
bass ostinato/bass line
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