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What are the components of blood?

45% cells (99% RBC), 55% plasma. Plasma proteins (albumin, globulin, fibrinogen, etc) are 98% of solutes in plasma

Plasma vs Serum

Plasma is blood minus cells (RBC, WBC, Platelets). Serum is plasma minus clotting elements (fibrinogen)

What kinds of proteins are in the plasma? (2)

1. Those at high concentrations (albumin, carrier proteins, immune proteins, proteins of blood coagulation) ALL PLASMA PROTEINS EXCEPT FOR THE IGS ARE MADE IN THE LIVER 2. Those at low levels with no functional role in the plasma

Main peaks in plama protein electrophoresis

Albumin and 4 globulins (A1 A2 Beta and Gamma). Variations in these peaks are indicative of certain diseases. Albumin peak is the only one that is albumin only, the rest are mixtures.

2 roles of albumin

Makes up 60% of plasma protein. 1. Maintains osmotic gradient 2. Transports hydrophobic molecules

Alpha1-Antitrypsin (2) (alpha1 globulin)

1. Inactivates trypsin and other proteolytic enzymes 2. Reduces damage from inflammation (its absense will lead to liver or lung disease)

Alpha2-Macroglobulin (alpha2 globulin)

Binds to and inactivates enzymes preventing tissue damage

Haptoglobin (alpha2 globulin)

Hemoglobin-binding protein, inhibits microbe iron uptake (binds to lysed hemoglobin and initiates breakdown)

Transferrin (beta globulin)

Transporter for Fe

Complement component 3 (beta globulin)

Helps regulate the inflammatory response to foreign substances

IgG (gamma globulin)

Major Ig, long term immunity

IgM (gamma globulin)

Initial response Ig, on membrane of B cell.

Fibrinogen (gamma globulin)

Coagulation factor (not found in serum)

Basic vs acid protein

Lys+Arg/Glu+Asp >1 = base <1 = acid

Immediate response (acute phase response)

v albumin, ^ A2

Late response (chronic inflammation)

v albumin, ^ A2, ^ gamma (same as immediate + gamma. Gamma up bc associated with infection)

Immunosuppressive diseases

v gamma (often see after chemo and radiation)

Hepatic cirrhosis

v albumin, ^ gamma (bc albumin is made in the liver, a decrease in albumin causes an increase in gamma globulins to keep osmotic pressure up)

Monoclonal gammopathy

v albumin, ^^^ gamma (multiple myeloma produces M protein endlessly)

Nephrotic syndrome

v albumin, ^ A2, v gamma (shows a reduction in low molecular weight proteins that leave the blood through the kidney, the liver INCREASES A2 globulins in response to lowered levels of albumin and gamma)

Protein-losing enteropathy

v albumin, ^ A2, v gamma. (Increase in A2 bc of stressful stimulus similar to chronic inflammation or nephrotic syndrome)

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