Special Senses - Anatomy & Physiology

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Terms in this set (107)
choroidprovides blood supply and absorbs scattered lightirisa colored contractile membrane with a perforated center (pupil), regulates the amount of light passing through the pupil to the interior of the eyeciliary bodycircular muscle that produces aqueous humorlensthe transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retinasuspensory ligamentsa fibrous membrane that holds the lens of the eye in placesensory tunicinnermost layer of the eyeretinathe light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual informationpigmented layerouter layer of the retina that lies over the choroidnervous layervisual portion of the retinarodsretinal receptors that function in dim light and produce black-and-white visionconesretinal receptors that function in bright light and produce color visionmaculahighly-sensitive, central part of the retina containing the foveafoveathe central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones clusteroptic nervethe nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brainoptic discregion at the back of the eye where the optic nerve and blood vessels enter the eye; also called the blind spot because it has neither rods nor conesaqueous humorfluid in the eye, found between the cornea and the lenscanal of Schlemmduct in the anterior chamber that carries filtered aqueous humor to the veins and bloodstreamvitreous humorjellylike substance found behind the lens in the posterior cavity of the eye that maintains its shapevitreous chamberthe main interior portion of the eye, filled with vitreous humorlacrimal apparatusthe structures that produce, store, and remove tearslacrimal glandsglads that produce tears that bathe and lubricate the eyescanthiinner and outer corners of the eye (singular: canthus)lacrimal canalspinpoint openings that tears of the eyes pass throughearthe sense receptor organ for two senses: hearing and equilibrium; consists of three major sections - the outer ear, or external ear; the middle ear, or tympanic cavity; and the inner ear, or labyrinthexternal earconducts sound waves through airmiddle earconducts sound through boneinner earconducts sound through fluidauricleexternal portion of the ear, collects waves traveling through the air and channels them to the external auditory canal (ear canal)external auditory canalslender tube lined with glands that produce cerumencerumena waxy substance secreted by glands located throughout the external canal, traps tine foreign particles and prevents them from entering further into the eartympanic membraneflat, membranous structure drawn over the end of the ear canal; also called the tympanum or the eardrumossiclesthree tiny bones in the middle earmalleushammer; first of the three auditory ossicles of the middle earincusanvil; middle of the three auditory ossicles of the middle earstapesstirrup; last of the three auditory ossicles of the middle earcochleaa snail-shaped, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulsesorgan of Corticenter part of the cochlea, containing hair cells, canals, and membraneshair cellstiny nerve endings found in the cochleaoval windowa membrane-covered opening on the external surface of the cochleaeustachian tubeconnects middle ear to pharynx, equalizes pressure on the outer and inner surfaces of the eardrumsemicircular canalsthree canals within the inner ear that contain specialized receptor cells that generate nerve impulses with body movementvestibulejoins the cochlea and the semicircular canalsaccessory structureshair, nails, glandsbasal cellsstem cells that replace taste cells every 7 to 10 daysbasilar membraneA structure that runs the length of the cochlea in the inner ear and holds the auditory receptors, called hair cells.bipolar cellsIn the retina, the specialized neurons that connect the rods and cones with the ganglion cells.bony (osseous) labyrinthDense bone layer of the temporal Contains perilymph fluidceruminous glandsmodified sweat glands, located in external ear canal, secretes cerumen (earwax)Chemoreceptorschemical sensors in the brain and blood vessels that identify changing levels of oxygen and carbon dioxideciliary zonulesuspensory ligament that attaches the lens to the ciliary bodycochlear ducta fluid filled cavity within the cochlea that vibrates when sound waves strike itcochlear nervethe branch of the auditory nerve that transmits auditory information from the cochlea to the brainconvergenceA binocular cue for perceiving depth; the extent to which the eyes converge inward when looking at an objectcrista ampullarisA specialized receptor located within the semicircular canals that detects head movementsdynamic equilibriumResult of diffusion where there is continuous movement of particles but no overall change in concentrationendolymphfluid within the membranous labyrinth of the inner earexternal acoustic meatusCanal leading to eardrum and middle earextrinsic (external) eye musclesattached to the outer surface of each eye, produce gross eye movements and make it possible for the eyes to follow a moving objecteyelashesNerve endings of follicles initiate reflex blinkingeyelids(palpebrae) two movable flaps of skin which cover and uncover each eyeball, protect eyesganglion cellsIn the retina, the specialized neurons that connect to the bipolar cells; the bundled axons of the ganglion cells form the optic nerve.gustatory cellssensory receptors within a taste budgustatory hairsfine hairs that extend from the taste receptors into taste pores, thereby connecting taste pores to taste receptorslacrimal canaliculithe ducts at the inner corner (medial canthus) of each eye that collect tears and drain them into the lacrimal saclacrimal sacprovides passage of lacrimal fluid towards nasal cavitylysozymean enzyme found in saliva and sweat and tears that destroys the cell walls of certain bacteriamechanoreceptorsrespond to touch, pressure, vibration, stretch, and itchmembranous labyrinthmembrane-covered tubes inside the bony labyrinth, filled with endolymphnasolacrimal ductpassageway for tears from the lacrimal sac into the noseneural layerinner layer; contains photoreceptors, bipolar cells, and ganglion cellsolfactory hairslong cilia that protrude from the nasal epithelium and are continuously bathed by a layer of mucus secreted by underlying glandsolfactory nervethe nerve that carries smell impulses from the nose to the brain; sense of smellolfactory receptorschemoreceptors in the upper nasal cavity that respons to odor chemicalsolfactory receptor cellsbipolar neurons surrounded by columnar epithelial cells, sensors responsible for smelloptic chiasmathe crossing of the optic nerves from the two eyes at the base of the brainoptic radiationA collection of axons coursing from the lateral geniculate nucleus to the visual cortexoptic tractsnerve pathways traveling from the optic chiasm to the thalamus, hypothalamus, and midbrainpapillae; circumvallate, fungiformpapillae- small peglike projections that covers the dorsal tongue circumvallate-taste buds are found on the side of these large round papillae fungiform- papillae that taste buds are found on the top of (rounded with taste buds)pharyngotympanic (auditory) tubeconnects tympanic cavity (middle ear) to nasopharynx; equalizes middle ear pressure with outside airphotoreceptors(cones and rods) converts light into signals that are sent to the brainpupilthe adjustable opening in the center of the eye (iris) through which light entersreal imagea copy of an object formed at the point where light rays actually meet (upside down image)refractedlight deflected from a straight path; altered and distortedrefractionThe bending of a wave as it passes at an angle from one medium to anotherround windowA membrane-covered opening in the inner wall of the middle ear that compensates for changes in cochlear pressure.special sensesvision, hearing, taste, smell, equilibriumspiral organ of cortireceptor organ for hearing; contains hair cellsstatic equilibriumthe perception of the orientation of the head when the body is stationarytaste budsStructures on the tongue that contain the receptor cells for tastetaste poreopening that exposes taste cell microvilli (gustatory hairs) to oral cavitytectorial membraneA membrane located above the basilar membrane; serves as a shelf against which the cilia of the auditory hair cells movevestibular apparatusThe receptive organs of the inner ear that contribute to balance and perception of head movementvestibular nervenerve that conducts impulses related to maintaining balance to the brainvisual acuitythe ability to see fine detailvascular layerchoroid, ciliary body, irissensory layerinnermost layer of the eye; retinafibrous layerOutermost layer; dense avascular connective tissue; scerla and cornea