# Cow, Calf, Stocker Nutrition

Assuming that a producer is experiencing a poor pregnancy rate (70-80% conception) in his cow herd. The females have a discolored hair coat and significant recurrence of estrus activity even though the females are apparently bred. Some calves have died at 7 - 10 days of age with no apparent illness noted. What is the potential problem and what should be done nutritionally to help in this situation?
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Assuming that a producer is experiencing a poor pregnancy rate (70-80% conception) in his cow herd. The females have a discolored hair coat and significant recurrence of estrus activity even though the females are apparently bred. Some calves have died at 7 - 10 days of age with no apparent illness noted. What is the potential problem and what should be done nutritionally to help in this situation?
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The importance of proper levels of trace minerals in the diets of beef cattle has been well established. Copper deficiency has been noted in many regions of the U.S. Copper deficiency affects reproduction as well as the immune function of baby calves. Organic and inorganic sources of copper have differing absorption rates in beef cattle. Copper sulfate and copper oxide are inorganic minerals. The copper lysine complex is an organic mineral source.

-How do they differ in terms of absorption rates?
-If a producer desired to manage a copper deficiency, which sources are the most desirable to use?
-Given examples of feed tags listing the ingredients, be able to identify organic and inorganic sources of copper on a feed tag.
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Winter stress is an important consideration in this state as well as many states to the north. Assuming that a 1200 lb. average milking beef cow has a TDN requirement of 16.8 lbs. of TDN per day. The beef cow is suffering from winter stress. The outside temperature is 10 o F with a wind speed of 25 mph, resulting in a wind chill index of -17 o F.

-If the cow's critical body temperature is 30 o F, what would be her new TDN requirement adjusted for the winter stress?
-How many pounds of bermudagrass hay (TDN = 65% on a dry matter basis) must be fed to satisfy this new TDN requirement?
-If the forage is of excellent quality (2.7% of her body weight in dry matter intake), can the female consume sufficient forage to satisfy her TDN requirement? Explain.
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The newborn is born without important immunoglobulins (antibodies) against disease. Nursing and receiving these valuable antibodies from mother's milk is essential for life. The first milk, colostrum, contains these very vital antibodies. Buildup of the antibodies in the mammary gland of the mother starts approximately _________ weeks prior to parturition. Since these antibodies are protein molecules, late gestation nutrition of the cow is vitally important.
The absorption of antibodies present in the colostrum by newborn calves is very restrictive due to the closure of the esophageal groove to the large protein antibody molecules. The greatest absorption occurs within the first __________ hours of life. Absorption of the antibodies decreases by 50% at _______ hours after birth and the esophageal groove will seal by 24 hours and the absorption of antibodies in the first milk will be 0%. Administering colostrum to a 2 day old calf does little good other than the protein and energy rich milk. Due the sealing of the esophageal groove at 24 hours of life, the antibodies present in the colostrum cannot be absorbed from the intestine after 24 hours of life.