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APES Chapter 4

Which of the following factors makes life on earth possible?
earth's orbit is correct distance, perfect amount of oxygen, stable temperatures, and ozone layer (all of the above)
Evidence for the evolution of life comes from all of the following except...
the Bible
Within a population and due to competition between individuals, those individuals with an advantage will survive to pass their genes on to the next generations. This is called what?
natural selection
Which best describes biologists' current hypothesis about the creation of the earth's atmospheric oxygen?
Photosynthesis by cyanobacteria produced atmospheric oxygen
Which is the most likely sequence for the biological evolution of life?
anaerobic prokaryotes, photosynthetic prokaryotes, aerobic prokaryotes, eukaryotes, multicellular organisms
What is not considered evidence for evolution?
all of them are correct! fossil records, chemical analysis, DNA analysis, and cores drilled into buried ice
The fossil record is incomplete because...
not all fossils have been found, some life forms left no fossils, and some fossils have decomposed (all of the above)
What are you least likely to find in a fossil?
A change in genetic composition of a population over successive generations is called what?
Mutations can be caused by what?
ultraviolet light, x rays, certain chemicals, and radioactivity (all of the above)
Mutations are...
a source of new genetic material
Which of the following is not a condition necessary for biological evolution to occur?
reproduction must be asexual
Any heritable trait that enables an organism to survive through natural selection and reproduce better under prevailing environmental conditions is called what?
Coevolution can involve the interaction of...
plants and herbivores, pollinators and flowers, parasites and hosts, plant roots and fungi (all of the above)
Which of the following is false? Coevolution...
leads to competitive relationships
The process in which a change in the gene pool of one species may lead to the change of the gene pool of another is what?
Which of the following is true?
newspecies can arise when individuals of two distinct species crossbreed to produce a hybrid, genetic information can be exchanged when one species feeds upon, infect, or comes into close contact with another, and speciation through hybirdization and gene transfer can occur rapidly when compared to millions of years for conventional Darwinian evolution through natural selection (all of the above)
The movement of tectonic plates influences evolution by doing what?
changing the locations of continents, causing some spcies to be geographically isolated from others
Which of the following events have forced species to adapt to environmental conditions or go extinct?
drastic heating and cooling of the earth, meteorites and asteroids hitting the earth, upheavel of the earth's crust (all of the above)
An organism's niche is analogous to its what?
way of life
An ecological niche includes all of the following except...
the location where a species lives
The process in which one species evolves into a variety of species is called what?
divergent evolution
A hummingbird would be considered a specialist species because...
it can only eat one certain type of food
Which of the following is false? 2
By defintion, the fittest animals are the largest and strongest animals
Geographic isolation may result from
a volcanic eruption, an earthquake, a mountain range, and a river (all of the above)
Geographic isolation is least likely to give rise to
convergent evolution
Darwin's description of macroevolution as an accumulation of steady, small evolutionary changes is best described as
a gradulalist model of evolution
Gould's view of macroevolution as long periods of relatively little change interrupted by short periods of relatively rapid change is best described as what?
a punctuated equilibrium hypothesis
Which of the following is not a common misconception about evolution?
the key to survival in a Darwinian world is coexistence through occupying different niches
Patterns of speciation and extinction are least likely to be affected by
changes in weather
Biodiversity is believed to be the result of
speciation and extinction
Biologists estimare that over____% of the species that have ever lived are now extinct.
Which of the following statements about extinction is false?
None of these statements is false
It takes on the order of ____ years for adaptive radiations to rebuild biological diversity after a mass extinction.
10 million
T or F? The idea that organisms change over time and are descended from a single common ancestor originated with Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace.
T or F? The fossil record represents 99% of all species that have ever existed.
T or F? Individual organisms evolve to become genetically different.
T or F? Mutations are sometimes beneficial.
T or F? Selective breeding is a method of artificial selection.
T or F? When local environmental conditions change, species may become extinct through background extinction.
T or F? In speciation, two species interbreed to form one new species.
T or F? Natural selection relies on three truths, one of which is based on genetic mutations.
T or F? Evolution comes about only through the process of natural selection.
T or F? Houseflies would probably adapt to an environmental change much quicker than a human.
T or F? Surivial of the fittest refers to those individuals that leave the most offspring.
T or F? Evolution by natural selection will ultimately result in spcies becoming perfectly adapted to their environment.
T or F? Extinction is the permanent loss of genetic diversity.
T or F? Natural selection acts via environment conditions on populations to increase their survival rate.
T or F? Genetic engineering involves making a modified gene, making a transgenic cell, and then growing a genetically altered organism.
T or F? Mutations must occur for biological evolution to happen.
T or F? An individual's acquired ability to jump could be the beginning of evolution.
T or F? Geographic isolation and reproductive isolation are the two processes that affect the number and types of species on earth.