Which of the following factors makes life on earth possible?
earth's orbit is correct distance, perfect amount of oxygen, stable temperatures, and ozone layer (all of the above)
Within a population and due to competition between individuals, those individuals with an advantage will survive to pass their genes on to the next generations. This is called what?
Which best describes biologists' current hypothesis about the creation of the earth's atmospheric oxygen?
Photosynthesis by cyanobacteria produced atmospheric oxygen
Which is the most likely sequence for the biological evolution of life?
anaerobic prokaryotes, photosynthetic prokaryotes, aerobic prokaryotes, eukaryotes, multicellular organisms
What is not considered evidence for evolution?
all of them are correct! fossil records, chemical analysis, DNA analysis, and cores drilled into buried ice
The fossil record is incomplete because...
not all fossils have been found, some life forms left no fossils, and some fossils have decomposed (all of the above)
A change in genetic composition of a population over successive generations is called what?
Mutations can be caused by what?
ultraviolet light, x rays, certain chemicals, and radioactivity (all of the above)
Which of the following is not a condition necessary for biological evolution to occur?
reproduction must be asexual
Any heritable trait that enables an organism to survive through natural selection and reproduce better under prevailing environmental conditions is called what?
Coevolution can involve the interaction of...
plants and herbivores, pollinators and flowers, parasites and hosts, plant roots and fungi (all of the above)
The process in which a change in the gene pool of one species may lead to the change of the gene pool of another is what?
Which of the following is true?
newspecies can arise when individuals of two distinct species crossbreed to produce a hybrid, genetic information can be exchanged when one species feeds upon, infect, or comes into close contact with another, and speciation through hybirdization and gene transfer can occur rapidly when compared to millions of years for conventional Darwinian evolution through natural selection (all of the above)
The movement of tectonic plates influences evolution by doing what?
changing the locations of continents, causing some spcies to be geographically isolated from others
Which of the following events have forced species to adapt to environmental conditions or go extinct?
drastic heating and cooling of the earth, meteorites and asteroids hitting the earth, upheavel of the earth's crust (all of the above)
The process in which one species evolves into a variety of species is called what?
A hummingbird would be considered a specialist species because...
it can only eat one certain type of food
Which of the following is false? 2
By defintion, the fittest animals are the largest and strongest animals
Geographic isolation may result from
a volcanic eruption, an earthquake, a mountain range, and a river (all of the above)
Darwin's description of macroevolution as an accumulation of steady, small evolutionary changes is best described as
a gradulalist model of evolution
Gould's view of macroevolution as long periods of relatively little change interrupted by short periods of relatively rapid change is best described as what?
a punctuated equilibrium hypothesis
Which of the following is not a common misconception about evolution?
the key to survival in a Darwinian world is coexistence through occupying different niches
It takes on the order of ____ years for adaptive radiations to rebuild biological diversity after a mass extinction.
T or F? The idea that organisms change over time and are descended from a single common ancestor originated with Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace.
T or F? When local environmental conditions change, species may become extinct through background extinction.
T or F? Evolution by natural selection will ultimately result in spcies becoming perfectly adapted to their environment.
T or F? Natural selection acts via environment conditions on populations to increase their survival rate.
T or F? Genetic engineering involves making a modified gene, making a transgenic cell, and then growing a genetically altered organism.