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AP HuG unit 3


the communication of ideas through symbols and sounds that are arranged according to rules


A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation

Language family

A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.

Language subfamily

a smaller group of related languages within a language family

Language group

a set of languages with a relatively recent common origin and many similar characteristics


A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate.

Preliterate society

Societies with out a written language

Standard language

The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.

Indo-European languages

A family of several hundred related languages and dialects that all come from a European root

Language convergence

collapsing of two language into one.

Language divergence

new languages are formed when a language breaks into dialects

Language replacement

Replacement of languages by a stronger language

Sound shifts

The diversification of languages

Deep reconstruction

process by which an extinct language is recreated

Proto Indo-European

language which came before Latin, greek, sanscript


The core of a Proto Indo-European language


second oldest, second largest indigenous family of language


any of the languages spoken by Native Americans


the family of languages who are still concentrated along Arctic and near-Arctic shores

Agriculture theory

the the theory which states that with increased food supply and increased population, speakers from the hearth of Indo-European languages migrated into Europe

Conquest theory

the theory that early Proto-Indo-European speakers spread westward on horseback, overpowering earlier inhabitants and beginning the diffusion and differentiation of Indo-European tounges


The study of the origins and meaning of place-names.

Official language

The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents

Monolingual states

countries in which only one language is spoken

Multilingual states

countries in which more than one language is spoken

Lingual franca

a common language between two different language speakers


a simplified form of speech developed from two or more languages


a mother tongue that originates from contact between two languages


An artificial language invented in 1887, based on the root forms of some words common to the major European languages.

Immigration laws

laws and regulations of a state designed specifically to control immigration into the state


Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.

Plural society

a society in which different cultural groupls keep their own identity, beliefs, and traditions

Ethnic islands

A small rural area settled by a single, distinctive ethnic group that placed its imprint on the landscape

Cultural linkage

a culturally shared trait that gives an ethnic group a strengthened sense of awareness and self-identity

Cultural revival

process that works against globalization, revitalizing cultural ties and promoting distinction.


the prejudice that members of one race are intrinsically superior to members of other races

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