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36 terms

AP Human Geo. unit 3

AP HuG unit 3
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Language
the communication of ideas through symbols and sounds that are arranged according to rules
Dialect
A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation
Language family
A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.
Language subfamily
a smaller group of related languages within a language family
Language group
a set of languages with a relatively recent common origin and many similar characteristics
Isogloss
A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate.
Preliterate society
Societies with out a written language
Standard language
The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.
Indo-European languages
A family of several hundred related languages and dialects that all come from a European root
Language convergence
collapsing of two language into one.
Language divergence
new languages are formed when a language breaks into dialects
Language replacement
Replacement of languages by a stronger language
Sound shifts
The diversification of languages
Deep reconstruction
process by which an extinct language is recreated
Proto Indo-European
language which came before Latin, greek, sanscript
Nostratic
The core of a Proto Indo-European language
Na-Dene
second oldest, second largest indigenous family of language
Amerind
any of the languages spoken by Native Americans
Eskimo-Aleut
the family of languages who are still concentrated along Arctic and near-Arctic shores
Agriculture theory
the the theory which states that with increased food supply and increased population, speakers from the hearth of Indo-European languages migrated into Europe
Conquest theory
the theory that early Proto-Indo-European speakers spread westward on horseback, overpowering earlier inhabitants and beginning the diffusion and differentiation of Indo-European tounges
Toponymy
The study of the origins and meaning of place-names.
Official language
The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents
Monolingual states
countries in which only one language is spoken
Multilingual states
countries in which more than one language is spoken
Lingual franca
a common language between two different language speakers
Pidgin
a simplified form of speech developed from two or more languages
Creole
a mother tongue that originates from contact between two languages
Esperanto
An artificial language invented in 1887, based on the root forms of some words common to the major European languages.
Immigration laws
laws and regulations of a state designed specifically to control immigration into the state
Ethnicity
Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.
Plural society
a society in which different cultural groupls keep their own identity, beliefs, and traditions
Ethnic islands
A small rural area settled by a single, distinctive ethnic group that placed its imprint on the landscape
Cultural linkage
a culturally shared trait that gives an ethnic group a strengthened sense of awareness and self-identity
Cultural revival
process that works against globalization, revitalizing cultural ties and promoting distinction.
Racism
the prejudice that members of one race are intrinsically superior to members of other races