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75 terms

ap Psych ch.4

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In order to test whether newborns can visually discriminate between various shapes and colors, psychologists have made use of the process of
Habituation
A mother who is slow in responding to her infant's cries of distress is most likely to encourage
insecure attachment
At 12 months of age Jeremy shows no more desire to be held by his own parents that by strangers. His behavior best illustrates
Insecure attachment
In order to qualify for the office manager's job, 55 yr old Mariel's must take a series of psychological tests. Her performance on the test of ___ is likely to be poorer than if she had taken if as a 25 yr old
abstract reasoning
The acquisition of a sense of object permanence is most closely associated with the development of
stranger anxiety
Critics of Kohlberg's theory of moral development have suggested the post conventional morality is more characteristic of
men than women
The ratio of males to females first begins declining during
prenatal development
Henry disapproves of stealing jelly beans his sister's Easter basket because he thinks his mother will spank him if he does. Henry best represents an ___ morality
preconventional
Dr. Matsuko's major research interest is the long-term effects of child-rearing practices on the psychological adjustment of offspring. It is most likely that Dr. Matsuko is an ____ psychologist
developmental
Children's sense that their parents are trustworthy and dependable is most indicative of
secure attachment
Aaron cried when his mother left him in the infant nursery at church, and he was not reassured or conformed by her return a short while later. Aaron showed signs of
insecure attachment
Even though Alicia was busy playing when her mother came to pick her up from her babysitter, she quickly ran to her mother, gesturing to be held Alicia most clearly showed signs of
secure attachment
If research suggested that a pregnant mother's use of an artificial sweetener cause harm to the fetus, the artificial sweetener would be considered a
teratogen
Parents who are demanding and yet sensitively responsive to their children are said to be
authoritative
During the course of successful prenatal development, a human organism begins as an
zygote and finally develops into a fetus
Preschoolers' acquisition of a theory of mind suggest that Piaget overestimated young children's
egocentrism
Instead of happily exploring the attractive toys located in the pediatrician's waiting room, little Sandra tenaciously clings on her mother's skin. Sandra most clearly shows signs of
insecure attachment
The rooting reflex refers to a baby's tendency to
open the mouth in search of a nipple when touched on the cheek
Lolita vacillates between acting rebellious toward her parents and high school teachers and behaving with compliance and respect. Erikson would have suggested that Lolita's inconsistency illustrates
role confusion
The symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome demonstrates that alcohol is a
teratogen
Mr. and Mrs. Batson can't wait to begin toilet training ther year old daughter. The Batsons most clearly need to be informed about the importance of
maturation
Mrs. Pearson cut Judy's hot dog into 8 pieces and Sylvia's into 6. Sylvia cried because she felt she wasn't getting as much hot dog as Judy. Piaget would say that Sylvia doesn't understand the principle of
conservation
Year old Eunice is not overly fearful of strangers but she clearly prefers being held by her mother than anyone else. Her behavior best illustrates
secure attachment
Killing one person in order to save 5 by throwing a switch that diverts a runaway trolley is judged as more morally acceptable than killing one person in order to save 5 by pushing a stranger directly into the path of the oncoming trolley. This best illustrates that moral judgments may reflect
gut-level intuitions
As boys with explosive tempers grow older, they are especially more likely to have difficulty maintaining good jobs and happy marriages. This fact is most relevant to the issue of
stability and change
The best evidence that 4 month old infants possess visual memory capabilities comes from research on
habituation
Which of the following factors is most important for the development of positive emotional bonds between human infants and their mothers
familiarity
One of the most consistently damaging teratogens is
alcohol
Lambs raised in the barn where the cattle are kept tend to stay near the cattle when subsequently placed in open pasture. This best illustrates a process known as
imprinting
In formulating his theory of psychosocial development, Erikson would have suggested that authoritarian parents are likely to inhibit young children's
autonomy and initiative
Marriage bonds are especially likely to endure when members of a couple
engage in more positive than negative interactions with each other
The first ejaculation is to an adolescent boy as ___ is to an adolescent girl
menarche
For Regis to think it's wrong to drive over the speed limit simply because he might get punished for doing so is demonstrating Kohlberg's ___ stage of morality
Preconventional
Adjusting current schemas to make sense of new information is called
accomodation
In recognizing the inaccuracies of one ethnic stereotypes and revising his or her beliefs, an individual most clearly illustrates the process of
accomodation
Research on the elderly has shown that
they become increasingly prone to car accidents
When joan touched her infant's cheek, he turned his head toward the side that was touched and opened his mouth. Joan was eliciting
rooting reflex
The powerful survival impulse that leads infants to seek closeness to their caregivers is called
attachment
Mr. Johnson spends time each day caressing and rocking her infant daughter. This time together should serve most directly to promote
secure attachment
Erik Erikson suggested that children with a secure attachment to their parents are especially likely to experience
basic trust
Habituation refers to the
decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus to which one is repeatedly exposed
Interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemas is called
assimilation
Dr. Ensing studies the reactions of very young children who are briefly separated from their mothers while in an unfamiliar setting. It is most likely that Dr. Ensing is conducting research on
attachment
A post conventional level of morality is most likely to be found in cultures that value
individualism
Two year old anna perceives her parents as cold and rejecting. This is most indicative of
insecure attachment
Edith abuses her 3yrold and 1yrold daughters. Her behavior is most likely related to a lack of
an early and secure attachment to her own parents
There is very little relationship between the age of an adult and his or her
level of life satisfaction
3 yr old Zara calls all four legged animals kittens. Her tendency to fit all four legged animals into her existing conception of a kitten illustrates the process of
assimilation
When 1 yr old Andrea tries to talk, her mother talks back when she smiles her mother smiles in return. These maternal reactions are most relevant to Andrea's development of
secure attachment
Questions about the extent to which secure attachments are influenced by infant temperament or by responsive parenting are most directly relevant to the issue of
nature or nuture
The Russian psychologist Vygotsky suggested that children's ability to solve problems is enhanced by
inner speech
According to Piaget's theory, during the concrete operational stages, a child is still unlikely to demonstrate
the ability to think hypothetically
18 month old justin follows his mother around the house, clinging tightly to her when he is frightened. this is
attachment behavior
Haidt's social intuitionist account highlights the impact of automatic gut level feelings on
moral judgement
It is difficult to successfully train many children to walk before they are 10 months old this is because of
maturation
The 1st time 4 yr old Sarah saw her older brother play the flute, she thought it was a large whistle. Sarah understanding best illustrates
assimulation
Vincent's ability to reason hypothetically in his geometry class indicates that he is in the ___ stage
formal operational
Fred has no meaningful occupational goals and has switched college majors several times. Erikson would have suggested that Fred lacks
identity
Identical twins with similar values and preferences are not very strongly attracted to one another's fiances. This fact has been used to suggest that romantic attraction is
chance encounters
Newborn infants typically prefer their mother's voice over father's because
they become familiar with their mother's voice before they are born
14 yr old Lisa was asked what would happen if everyone in the world suddenly went blind. She responded those who had previously been blind would become leaders. Lisa's answer indicates she is in the ___ stage of development
formal operational
Babies who are unable to predict how their parents will react to their cries for care and attention are especially likely to show signs of
insecure attachment
Researchers have sneakily dabbed rouge on young children's noses in order to study the developmental beginnings of
self awareness
According to Erikson, committing oneself to meaningful social roles would be most indicative of the attachment of
identity
Piaget is best known for his interest in the process of ___ development
cognitive
Puberty is most closely related to the onset of
menarche
if youre really concerned about the rights and dignity of women how can you justify buying pornographic magazines? Yigal's question indicates that he is in the ___ stage of development
formal operational
Sierra who is a heroin addict , age 28 is pregnant. Her baby will be born
a heroin addict
Despite huge legal costs and social disapproval, Mr. Lambers refuses to pay income taxes because his conscience will not allow him to support a government that spends billions of $ on military weopons. Mr. Lambers' reasoning best illustrates Kohlberg's ____ stage
postconventional
For several months following a sudden and unexpected divorce, Henry is excessively preoccupied with thoughts of his ex wife His reaction resulted form the disruption of
attachment
Young children typically try to stay close to their parents when they are in an unfamiliar setting. This best illustrates
attachement
Formal operational thought is most associated with
fluid intelligence
An impaired theory of mind most closely associated with
autism
Providing children with a safe haven in times of stress contributes most directly to
secure attachment
Menopause is associated with a reduction of
estrogen