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Chapter 2

STUDY
PLAY
Phrenologist
The person most likely to suggest that the shape of a person's skull indicates the extent to which that individual is argumentative and aggressive
Franz Joseph Gall
Most likely to claim that a slight protrusion in a certain region of someone's skull indicated that the individual had an optimistic personality
The body's chemistry and behavior
A biological psychologist would be most interested in the relationship between
Psychiatrist
A medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders; can prescribe medication
Biological psychologist
studies every aspect of behavior and mental processes; link between psychology and biology; want to understand sleep, hunger, sex, stress, disease and depression
Neurons
dendrites are branching extentions of _______
Axon
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands.
Dendrite-Soma-Axon-Synapse-Dendrite
An electrical signal within a single neuron travels from _______
Myelin Sheath
a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next
Synapse
the junction between two neurons (axon-to-dendrite) or between a neuron and a muscle
Neurotransmitter
chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons
Reuptake
reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by the presynaptic terminal
There are more Excitatory Inputs than Inhibitory Inputs
A neuron will generate action potentials more often when
away from; towards
An axon transmits messages _____ the soma and a dendrite transmits messages ______ the soma
Action Potential
The firing of a neuron. Occurs when charge inside neuron becomes more positive than charge outside.
Threshold
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse.
All or none
referring to the fact that a neuron either fires completely or does not fire at all
Polorized with positive ions outside and negative ions inside
In a resting state, the axon is
Depolorized when positive atoms are admitted
During action potiential, the electrical state of the axon becomes
Agonist
a drug that mimics a certain neurotransmitter
antagonist
drug which blocks the activity of neurotransmitters
Number of times a neuron fires
A strong stimulus can increase the
Serotonin;winter
The neurotransmitter _____ is most likely to be low during ________ (multiple choice)
Dopamine
neurotransmitter that influences voluntary movement, attention, alertness; lack of is linked with Parkinson's disease; too much is linked with Schizophrenia
Acetylcholin
neurotransmitter controlling muscle contraction and movement, learning, memory; lack of is linked with Alzheimer's disease
Norepinephrine
neurotransmitter that helps control alertness and arousal; lack of linked to depression
Endorphines
"morphine within" natural opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure
Glutamate
a major excitatory neurotransmitter involved in information transmission throughout the brain and memory; Oversupply of is linked to migranes and seizures
GABA
major inhibitory neurotransmitter; lack of is linked to seizures, tremors, and insomnia
Hypothalamus
limbic system component that regulates hunger, body temperature and other functions
Acetylcholin antagonist
Botox injections smooth facial wrinkles because botulin is a(n)
Central Nervous System
The brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
Parasympathetic Nervous System
The division of the autonomic nervous system known as the 'resting and digesting' system. It causes a general decrease in body activities such as heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure; increase in digestion
Sympathetic Nervous System
The division of the autonomic nervous system that mobilizes the body's resources during stress and emergencies, preparing the body for action.
Somatic Nervous System
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles
Reflex
a simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response
Neural Networks
interconnected neural cells; with experience, networks can learn, as feedback strengthens or inhibits connections that produce certain results; in the Central Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
the part of the nervous system of vertebrates that controls involuntary actions of the smooth muscles and heart and glands
PET scan
a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
MRI
a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain
CT scan
a series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body.
hormone
chemical messenger that is secreted by an endocrine gland carried by the bloodstream; slow-acting but long-lasting
Left hemisphere
half of the brain generally specializes in analysis, calculation, problem solving, verbal communication, interpretation, language, reading & writing. It receives info and controls opposite of the body.
Right hemisphere
half of the brain specializes in perception of physical environment, art, nonverbal communication, music & spiritual aspects. It receives information from and controls the opposite side of the body.
Corpus callosum
the fibers that connect the right and left hemispheres, enabling them to communicate
Wernicke's area
controls language reception-a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression;in the left temporal lobe
Broca's area
controls language expression-an aread of the frontal, in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
Plasticity
the brain's capacity for modification, as evident in brain reorganization following damage (especially in children) and in experiments on the effects of experience on brain development
Visual cortex
The region of the occipital lobes in which visual information is processed.
Temporal Lobe
that part of the cerebral cortex in either hemisphere of the brain lying inside the temples of the head; lies below the frontal lobe, responsible for hearing, taste, and smell
aphasia
inability to use or understand language (spoken or written) because of a brain lesion
Cerebral cortex
the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center
Association areas
areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking
limbic system
a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions such as fear and aggression and drives such as those for food and sex. Includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus.
Hippocampus
a neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage
Amygdala
two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion
Phineas Gage
railroad worker who survived a severe brain injury that dramatically changed his personality and behavior; case played a role in the development of the understanding of the localization of brain function
Serotonin
neurotransmitter that affects mood, sleep, hunger, and arousal; lack of is linked to depression
EEG
a graphical record of electrical activity of the brain
Alcoholism
Inadequate dopamine may contribute to
Frontal Lobe
that part of the cerebral cortex in either hemisphere of the brain lying directly behind the forehead; associated with movement, speech, and impulsive behavior
Parietal Lobe
that part of the cerebral cortex in either hemisphere of the brain lying below the crown of the head, posterior to the frontal lobe; responsible for sensations such as pain, temperature, and touch
Occipital Lobe
that part of the cerebral cortex in either hemisphere of the brain lying in the back of the head, posterior to the parietal and temporal lobes; responsible for vision
Sensory neurons and Motor neurons
The peripheral nervous system is made up of
CT scan
What is the best for finding a lesion?
Lesion
any destruction or damage to brain tissue
Sensory neuron-Interneuron- Motor neuron
Which is the correct sequence in the transmission of a simple reflex