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Terms in this set (28)
refers to a systematic approach fro seeking and organizing knowledge about the natural world-as evidenced by description, prediction, and control-that relies on determinism as its fundamental assumption, empiricism as its prime directive, experimentation as its basic strategy, replication as its necessary requirement for believability, parsimony as its conservative value, and philosophic doubt as its guiding conscience
Goal of Science
to acheive a thorough understanding of the phenomena under study-socially important behaviors, in the case of applied behavior analysis
Sciences 3 levels of uncerstanding
description, prediction, and control
exists when a well controlled experiment reveals that a specific change in one event (dependent variable) can reliably be produced by specific manipulation od another event (independent vairable), and that the change in the DV was unlikely to be the result of other extraneous factors (confounding variables)
Attitudes of Science
determinism, experiementation, replication, parsimony, and philosophic doubt
scientist presume that the universe is a lawful and orderly place in which all phenomena occur as the result of other events.
the practics of objective observation of the phenomena of interest
a carefully conducted comparison of some measure of the phenomena of interest (DV) under two or more different conditions in which only one factor at a time (IV) differs from one condition to another
repeating experiments. the primary method with which scientists determine the reliability and usefulness of their findings and discover their mistakes
requires that all simple, logical explanations for the phenomenon under investigation be rules out, experimentally or conceptually, before more complex or abstract explanations are considered.
requires the scientist to continually question the truthfulness of what is regarded as fact, even in their own findings.
3 branches of Behavior Analysis
behaviorism, basic research, and applied behavior analysis
philosophy of the science of behavior
the province of the experimental analysis of behavior (EAB)
Applied Behavior Analysis
the science in which tactics are derived from the principles of behavior are applied systematically to improve socially significant behavior and experimentation is used to identify the variables responsible for behavior change
reflexive behavior, respondents are elicited by stimuli that immdeiately precede them. involuntary na doccur whenever the elicited stimulus is presented
not elicited by preceding stimulus but instead are influenced by stimulus changes that have followed the behavior in the past.
an approach to the study of behavior which assumes that a mentail or inner dimension exists that differs from a behavioral dimension. further assumes that phenomena in this dimension either directly cause or at least mediate some forms of behavior, if not all
incorporating private events into an overall conceptual system of behavior, includes and seeks to understand all human behavior
Dimensions of ABA
applied, behavioral, analytic, technological, conceptual, effective, capable of generalized outcomes, accountability, public, doable, empowering, optimistic
ABAs commitment to affecting improvements in behaviors that enhance and improve people's lives. must select behaviors to change that are socially significant for participants social, language, academic, daily living, self care, vocational, and/or leisure behaviors that improve the day to day life experience of the participants and/or significant others in such a way that they behave more pisitively with and toward the participant
1. not just any behavior, but must be the behavior in need of improvement. 2. the behavior must be measurable. precise and reliable measurement 3. when changes in an experiment occur must ask whose behavior has changed
experimenter has demonstrated a functional relation between the manipulated events and a reliable change in some measurable dimension of the targeted behavior. the experimenter must be able to control the occurrence and nonoccurence of the behavior
when all of its operative procedures are identified and described with sifficient detail and clarity "such that a reader has a fair chance of replicating the application with the same results"
the procedures for changing behavior and any interpretations of how or why those procedures were effective should be described in terms of the relevant principle from which they were derived
must improve the behavior under investigation to a practical degree
behavior change has generality if it lasts over time, appears in evnironments other than the one in which the intervention that initially produced it was implemented, and/or spreads to other behaviors not directly treated by the intervention
the commitment ogg applied behavior analysts to effectiveness, their focus on accessible environmental variables that reliably influence behavior, and their reliance on direct and frequent measurement to detect changes in behavior yield an inescapable and socially valuable form of accountability
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