AP HUG Unit 5 Concept List: Agriculture and Rural land use
Terms in this set (81)
controlling the land to plant crops to benefit the human race
the taming of animals through generations of breeding to live in close association with humans as a pet or work animal
hunting and gathering
The killing of wild animals and fish as well as the gathering of fruits, roots, nuts, and other plants for sustenance.
(of groups of people) tending to travel and change settlements frequently
Reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants, such as cutting stems and dividing roots.
Reproduction of plants through annual introduction of seeds, which result from sexual fertilization.
Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family
Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
An agricultural system characterized by low inputs of labor per unit land area.
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
using more capital than labor in the production process.
a small farm in which the land values, inputs and outputs, and yields per hectare are high and the crops produced are perishable and of high value
first agricultural revolution
Dating back 10,000 years, the First Agricultural Revolution achieved plant domestication and animal domestication
(10,000 - 8,000 BCE) The development of agriculture and the domestication of animals as a food source. This led to the development of permanent settlements and the start of civilization.
agricultural hearths and diffusion
Through time nomadic people noticed the growing of plants in a cycle and began to domesticate them and use for there own use. Carl Sauer points out vegetative planting and seed agriculture as the original forms. He also points out that vegetative planting likely was originated in SE Asia and seed agriculture originated in W. India, N. China and Ethiopia. Without the development of agriculture we would still have a relatively small and likely uneducated population.
second agriculture revolution
Dovetailing with and benefiting from the Industrial Revolution, the Second Agriculture Revolution witnessed improved methods of cultivation, harvesting, and storage of farm produce.
Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
process whereby the farm has moved from being the centerpiece of agricultural production to become one part of an integrated string of vertically organized industrial processes including production, storage, processing, distribution, marketing and retailing
regions of agricultural production
places where agriculture is prevalent
Koppen's classification system
the greeks ( Waldimir Koppen) created this. based on distribution of vegetation.
tropical A, Mesothermal climates C, microthermal climates D, polar climates E, dry arid and semi arid B
a form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
slash and burn
Another name for shifring cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris.
A patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning.
Tillage between rows of crops of plants
A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.
The movements of livestock according to seasonal patterns, generally lowland areas in the winter, and highland areas in the summer.
Grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals, as well as land used for grazing
when men hold the power in the family, economy, and government
intensive subsistence agricultural
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land
Flooded field for growing rice
Level of stimulation needed to trigger a neural impulse
Material consisting of seed coverings and small pieces of stem or leaves that have been separated from the seeds
(v.) to get rid of something unwanted, delete; to sift through to obtain what is desirable; to remove the chaff from the wheat by blowing air on it; to blow on, fan
Settlement home designed as a welfare agency for needy families. It provided social and educational opportunities for working class people in the neighborhood as well as improving some of the conditions caused by poverty.
Production system based on a large estate owned by an individual, family, or corporation and organized to produce a cash crop. Almost all plantations were established within the tropics; in recent decades, many have been divided into smaller holdings or reorganized as cooperatives
agriculture that is in one central area
globalization of agriculture
increasing influence on agriculture at a global or regional level. Recently agriculture has had a greater influence in African countries to feed starving people.
agriculture that is organized like a line
it is set up with many blocks through a long, and large space/lot
circular rural settlements
Type of settlement common in Germany which includes a central open space
rearing aquatic animals or cultivating aquatic plants for food
dispersed rural settlements
A rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages.
Genetically modified organisms. Organisms created by combining natural or synthetic genes using the techniques of molecular biology.
townships and range
every one mile is divided with lines
During the Industrial Revolution, it was the consolidation of many small farms into one large farm, which created a labor force as many people lost their homes.
Harvesting twice a year from the same field.
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
mixed crop and livestock farming
both animal and crops are farmed in the same area, it's helpful because farmers could distribute the workload more evenly through the year
A grass yielding grain for food
Grains that can be stored and used throughout the year
The method of rotating crops | used to keep fields fertile | without having to leave one field fallow or unused
a class of agricultural, or an animal husbandry, enterprise for, long-term production of milk, usually from cows but also from goats, sheep, and camels, which may be either processed on-site or transported to a factory for processing and eventual retail sales
the area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied
The mass planting and harvesting of grain crops, such as wheat, barley, and millet.
a geographic region serving as the principal source of grain
farming strategy in which large fields are planted with a single crop, year after year
wheat planted in the fall and harvested in the early summer
Wheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer
A machine that cuts grain standing in the field.
A machine that reaps, threshes, and cleans grain while moving over a field.
An extensive commercial agricultural activity that involves the raising of livestock over vast geographic spaces typically located in semi-arid climates like the American West.
a building where livestock are fattened for market
An agricultural system practiced in the Mediterranean-style climates of Western Europe, California, and portions of Chile and Australia, in which diverse specialty crops such as grapes, avocados,
Cultivation of crops carried out with simple hand tools such as digging sticks or hoes.
Truck Farming and selling to large companies
The small scale production of fruits, vegetables, and flowers as cash crops sold directly to local consumers. Distinguishable by the large diversity of crops grown on a small area of land, during a single growing season. Labor is done manually.
Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English word meaning batering or the exchange of commodities.
Non-subsistence crops such as tea, cacao, coffee, and tobacco
Von Thunen's model
a commercial farmer initially considers which crops to cultivate and which animals to raise based on market location (transportation costs)
USA's farm crisis
we are farming on very little land left and all of the stuff grown is going to companies.
Agricultural revolution that increased production through improved seeds, fertilizers, and irrigation; helped to support rising Asian populations.
government agricultural subsides
Farm Policy, Domestic economic policy, foreign policy, and global welfare and development policy
series of links connecting the many places of production and distribution, resulting in a commodity that is then exchanged on the world market
Farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil- restoring crops with cash crops and reducing in-puts of fertilizer and pesticides.
system of planting crops on ridge tops in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation
crops produced without the use of synthetic or industrially produced pesticides and fertilizers
the view that pop. growth independantly forces a conversion from extensive to intensive subsistence agriculture
A form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes.
Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.
deforestation of the trophies
The forests are being diminished by multiple human impacts. one of the main reasons was to clear land for cattle and farming. Many of the cleared trees are burned emitting CO2 into the air. If this continues in 20 years the natural covers will be gone Also the logging of hard wood and underlying minerals go with this
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