WHO: Mongolian Leader/ Warrior King
WHAT: Leader of Mongolian empire during the Yuan Dynasty. Denied Chinese influence to keep a distinction from the settled Chinese and Nomadic Mongolian. Forbade Chinese from learning Mongolian, forbidden to intermarry, women from nomadic families accepted into harem, Mongolian religious ceremonies retained, traditional tent camp was a capital, no civil rights exam, etc. Chinese religions (Conf, Budd, Tao) were annexed. Moved Mongolian capital to Beijing. New Rituals followed. New Social structure: (Mongols > Nomads/Muslims > Northern Chinese > Ethnic/Southern Chinese). Women didn't footbind, were less feminine, had more rights, etc. Buddhism promoted, harsh treatments sometimes reduced by Khan's wife, etc. No farmlands force converted to pastureland. HOWEVER. CHINESE CULTURE, A HIGHER THAN CHINESE MUSLIM SOCIAL CLASS, AND TRAVELERS, LIKE MARCO POLO, WERE ACCEPTED; tolerated intelligence through curiosity. Eventually everything goes wrong and they lose to rebellious southern Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, Muslims, etc. Famine, piratry, scholar revolts, religious sects (White Lotus, magical order to overthrow mongols), etc.
WHERE: Mongolia, China, Islamic World
WHY: Denied Chinese influence and tried to keep Mongolian culture distinct (though eventually he did allow intelectual culture to assimilate). Demoted civil rights exams, wanted nomadic capital, women = more rights and less feminine, etc... NOMADIC = GOOD to him. Like Ghengis Khan, he was tolerant of other cultures, though less than the former. So importantly, Nomadic, less civilized people, like merchants and warriors were typically very good, and scholars were typically undermined in importance... yet city life flourished (literature suffers, dramas flourish). TRIES TO HELP PEASANTS ECONOMICALLY AND SOCIALLY = HELP ROOTS OF EMPIRE. Ming Dynasty started due to their fall.