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Terms in this set (44)
What factors led to the beginning of the Renaissance in northern Europe?
Population began to recover from the Plague
Hundred Years' ended
Cities grew rapidly
City merchants became wealthy enough to sponsor artists
How did the northern Renaissance differ from the Italian Renaissance?
Italy divided in to city-states
France & England were ruled by strong monarchs
Stronger interest in realistic art
Renaissance ideal of human dignity leads to development of social reform.
The tone of the Northern Renaissance, however, is different from what was seen in Italy.
While wealthy merchants and rich, independent city-states led the way in Italy, this was not the case in the north.
Due in part to the plague and the Hundred Years War, northern Europe had strong centralized power structures in the form of monarchies. They didn't have uppity city-states.
Thus, it was mainly the kings and some nobles who were responsible for the Renaissance's spread there, not wealthy patron families.
It's also more religious there.
While the Italian Renaissance was not strictly secular, it was more so than the Northern flavor.
What factors might have influenced the trend toward a more realistic style of art?
Artists could travel & learn better techniques
Oil paints made more realistic, subtle paintings possible.
How were the works of German painters different from those of the Flemish painters? Give examples.
German painters such as Dürer used classic myths and religious subjects.
Flemish painters such as Bruegel focused on ordinary subjects and uses a great amount of detail.
How did Christian humanism develop? What was the focus of the movement?
Italian humanist ideas reach the north, people apply them to Church teachings.
See Church as failing to inspire people to live fully as Christians.
Focused on reform of society, especially in education.
Called for education of women in schools that integrated genders.
How did Elizabeth I contribute to the Renaissance?
Renaissance spread to England in mid-1500s.
Called Elizabethan Age.
She reigned from 1558-1603.
Extremely well-educated (French, Italian, Latin, and Greek)
Wrote poetry and music
Supports the arts.
How did the Elizabethan Age reflect the values of the Italian Renaissance?
Focus on art & literature
Positive view of humans & human nature
How did the invention of the printing press help spread learning and Renaissance ideas?
Books were cheap- affordable
Written in the vernacular for those without classical educations.
Initially only produce religious works- expand to travel guides, medical manuals, etc.
What was one important and lasting result of the invention of the printing press?
Bible available to more people, decreasing reliance on Church interpretation of Scripture.
Increased knowledge of the world.
What were some changes brought about by the Renaissance period, both artistically and socially?
Art was secular as well as religious
Painters & sculptors began to portray their works in a more realistic way.
Movable type printing made info more readily available.
More books & vernacular leads to a rise in literacy.
People begin to question political structures & religious practices.
Woodcuts & engravings whose realism influenced others. Works shows religious subjects as well as classical myths, realistic landscapes
Jan van Eyck
Used oil-based paints to develop new techniques. Applied many layers of
paint to create a variety of subtle colors in clothing & jewels. Oil painting spreads to Italy. Realistic details show personalities of subjects.
Pieter Bruegel the Elder
Interested in realistic details and individuals. Painted scenes from everyday life. Paintings illustrate proverbs, teach morals, or protest Spanish rule over his country (?)
Christian humanist. Wrote The Praise of Folly which poked fun at flaws in real people- greedy merchants, pompous priests, etc. He believed that to improve society, people should study the Bible. Believed in Christianity of the heart- not in religion of rules & ceremonies.
Concerned with societies flaws. Show an ideal model of a society in Utopia.
Plays examine human flaws and express Renaissance's high views of human nature. Draws on Greek & Roman classics for many plots.
Christine de Pizan
What is the Renaissance?
Rebirth of art and learning
When did the Renaissance take place?
What were the major causes of the European Renaissance?
Cities and towns
Ottoman Turks' conquest of Byzantium caused Byzantine scholars to leave that city and bring ancient Greek texts with them, making those texts available for study in Europe.
The rise of the merchant class made more money available to support the arts.
Three crises of Middle Ages
Demographic, political, religious. Losses in population were being recaptured, and increasingly able monarchs & rulers were imposing new political order. Religious crisis would have to await the Reformation & Counter- Reformation.
Why did the Renaissance begin in Italy?
Thriving cities: Trade spurred by the crusades. Led to growth of large city-states in northern Italia. Especially Venezia, Pisa, Genoa, Milano, Firenze, Napoli
Wealthy merchant class:
How did Italian city-states help to create the Renaissance?
Who were the Médici? Why are they so important to Renaissance Italy?
Merchants often involved in politics.
Médici family involved in banking.
Bank branches all over Europe
Never seek office of the republic, but influence members of ruling council by giving them loans. The Signoria were chosen from heads of the most powerful guilds- representing major clothing industries (cloth, wool, fur, and silk)- and other burghers- bankers, judges, doctors.
Patronage of arts
Intellectual movement that focused on human potential and achievements.
1) Birth of modernity- dignity of humankind, individualism, secular values. 2) Authentic Catholicism
3)Scholarship promoting civic responsibility and political liberty
4) Educational program promoting rhetoric and scholarship intrinsically.
How did humanism influence the growth of learning and Renaissance ideas?
Influenced artists to carry on classical traditions and popularized the studies common to classical education.
Focused on people and their achievements, so art and thought became more concerned the here and now.
How did ideas about piety and a simple life change?
MA: Piety was expressed through ascetic means- rough clothing, deprivation, etc.
Although people remained devoutly Catholic, the spirit of society was secular. Church leader and the wealthy believed they could enjoy life without offending God.
Why did Church leaders and wealthy merchants support the arts?
Showed their importance by having portraits painted and decorating churches and public buildings.
What is a "Renaissance Man"?
One's education/learning/artistic expression was status.
A man who excels in many fields was called the homo universale "universal man". In modernity, we use the former term.
What were the differences and similarities between upper-class Renaissance men and women?
Both were expected to know the classics
Most women lacked political power
How was Renaissance art revolutionary?
Use of perspective
Reveals subject's personality
What effects did the emphasis on individuals have on painters and sculptors?
Painted to portraits of prominent citizens, showing what was distinctive about each
Glorify the human body in natural poses
Developed perspective to enhance realism.
Sculpture, poet, and architect that used realistic style
Realistic sculptures by carving natural postures and expressions that reveals personality
Statue of David
Inventor and scientist-renaissance man, interested in how things worked
Leonard and michealanglo
Advances in realism, perspective and School of Athens.
First women artist to gain international reputation
Trained with her father and helped and painted strong heroic women
Earliest and most influential human, father of Renaissance man
Noble fam, exchanged sonnets with Michelangelo
How did writers reflect Renaissance values in their work?
Express own thoughts, opinions.
Detailed descriptions of individuals
Petrarch wrote sonnets about Laura, an ideal woman
Boccaccio wrote about the follies of his characters in the Decameron, et Machiavelli wrote about the imperfect conduct of humans in The Prince.
Dante writes realistically
Wrote in vernacular- not Church Latin
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