History chapter 21
Terms in this set (62)
A person's Social Security benefits derive from contributions that they themselves make into the program, from each and every paycheck throughout their working lives.
Which of the following was not a significant motivation behind the New Deal?
reviving America's commitment to family values at a time when they seemed to be in decline
In March 1933, Congress established the federal government as a direct employer of the unemployed when it authorized the hiring of young men to work on projects to improve national parks, forests, and flood control, through what was called:
the Civilian Conservation Corps.
The National Recovery Act was modeled on the government-business partnership of the War Industries Board of World War I.
In addressing the sense of crisis in the nation, Franklin Delano Roosevelt sought to reassure the public in his inaugural address, declaring:
"the only thing we have to fear is fear itself."
Federal programs such as the Agricultural Adjustment Act helped nearly all sharecroppers live better, more productive, and more profitable lives.
The Federal Housing Authority (FHA) ensured millions of mortgages issued by private banks; and during the 1930s, the federal government set out, for the first time, to build thousands of units of low-rent housing for American citizens.
Which was not the case with regard to American labor and workers in 1934?
Farmers from California to Maine led a general strike for shorter hours, better pay, and improved working conditions.
By 1940, union membership had more than doubled from that of 1930.
The New Deal continued to expand throughout Roosevelt's second term; only with the coming of World War II would its momentum expire.
Section 7a of the National Recovery Administration recognized the rights of workers to organize unions.
The 1936 election saw the crystallizing of the "New Deal coalition."
Who was not a member of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's "brain trust" at the outset of his presidency?
When Franklin Roosevelt set out to appoint additional justices of the United States Supreme Court in an effort to keep the Court from invalidating legislative measures of the Second New Deal, most Americans supported his initiative.
In the 1930s, good rains and good weather resulted in bountiful crops in Oklahoma, Texas, Kansas, and Colorado.
The Congress of Industrial Organizations enjoyed broad appeal among skilled workers but found little support among the nation's millions of unskilled workers.
Russia and Germany suffered under the respective tyrants Stalin and Hitler during the 1930s.
In the mid-1930s, unions of industrial workers, led by John L. Lewis, founded a new labor organization, called:
the Congress of Industrial Organizations.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt entered the presidency in 1933 with a complex, detailed blueprint for dealing with the Great Depression.
Roosevelt's declaration of a four-day "bank holiday," along with emergency banking legislation, shored up citizens' confidence in the nation's banks, and in 1936 no bank failures were recorded.
Which of the following was not a key thrust of the Second New Deal?
guaranteed health care for every American citizen
When nine young black men—the "Scottsboro boys"—were arrested for the rape of two white women in Alabama in 1931, the Communist-dominated International Labor Defense represented them in what became an international cause célèbre.
Eleanor Roosevelt's name before she married Franklin Delano Roosevelt was also Eleanor Roosevelt—she and her husband were distant cousins.
Conservative critics of the New Deal regularly argued that:
all of the above.
The broad-ranging federal legislation that transformed the federal government's role in the American economy during the first two years of Franklin D. Roosevelt's presidency brought the nation out of economic depression, and resulted in nearly full employment.
Franklin Roosevelt appointed this person, a prominent educator, as special adviser on minority affairs:
Mary McLeod Bethune
The effort undertaken on the part of the federal government to supply cheap electrical power for homes and factories in a seven-state region, preventing flooding, and putting the federal government in the business of selling electricity by building a series of dams was called:
the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA).
The Civil Works Administration (CWA), employed more than 4 million people in:
construction of tunnels, highways, courthouses, and airports.
Which was not a decision of the United States Supreme Court in 1934-1936 concerning New Deal legislation?
It declared the Civilian Conservation Corps constitutional, insofar as it abided the interstate commerce clause in the United States Constitution.
The National Industrial Recovery Act boosted the prospects for American unionism, but did little to restore economic prosperity.
Which of the following was not a theme of Popular Front radicalism?
The denial of civil liberties must be challenged wherever it arises—from capitalist America to communist Russia.
The first "hundred days" of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's presidency witnessed the greatest expansion in the role of the federal government in the nation's history.
The House of Representatives' Un-American Activities Committee, established in 1938, set out to investigate disloyalty with an expansive definition of "un-American" that included all of the following groups except:
the left wing of the Democratic Party.
In the 1934 and 1936 elections, black Americans abandoned their traditional allegiance to the Republican Party in favor of the Democrats and the New Deal.
Which was not created by the Social Security Act of 1935, which launched the American welfare state?
minimum wage and child labor laws
Eleanor Roosevelt transformed the role of "first lady," making it a base for political action.
Who authored The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money and asserted that large-scale government deficit-spending was appropriate during economic downturns?
John Maynard Keynes
The National Recovery Administration (NRA), headed by Hugh S. Johnson, set codes of fair practices and set prices and wages in many American industries; the NRA's symbol, which stores and factories that abided by the code displayed, was:
the blue eagle.
Which of the following series of events is listed in proper sequence?
National Industrial Recovery Act; labor upheaval of 1934; Wagner Act; Flint Sit-Down Strike
While the status of Mexican-Americans improved markedly under the New Deal, that of American Indians grew substantially worse.
Black Americans were unwelcome as members of the Congress of Industrial Organizations.
In a blow to Mexican-Americans and many other agricultural workers, the Wagner and Social Security Acts did not apply to them.
Which is not true of Franklin D. Roosevelt?
He served as governor of Massachusetts in the 1920s.
The original Social Security bill included a national system of health insurance, but this provision was dropped after fierce opposition from the American Medical Association.
The breakup of large corporations is essential to economic recovery; this was a core principle of the New Deal.
Between 1929 and 1933, about 5,000 banks (one-third of the nation's total) failed.
Which of the following was not a key factor in Franklin Roosevelt's landslide victory over Herbert Hoover in 1932?
Voters were impressed by the elaborate blueprints for Roosevelt's New Deal program.
The National Recovery Administration (NRA) exempted businesses from antitrust laws.
Beginning with a sit-down strike of 7,000 General Motors workers in Cleveland, Ohio, sit-down strikes spread to Flint, Michigan, and elsewhere in the mid-1930s.
The Tennessee Valley Authority brought electric power to many Americans for the first time.
A major slogan of popular protest during the 1930s was:
"Don't buy where you can't work."
The commissioner of Indian affairs who launched an "Indian New Deal" that ended a policy of forced assimilation and allowed Indians unprecedented cultural autonomy, and who secured the passage of the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, was:
At a time of widespread hunger in the United States, the Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) did all of the following except:
ordered a vast expansion in the production of cotton, wheat, barley, and corn across the Midwest in an effort to stave off hunger and starvation.
What 1935 law outlawed "unfair labor practices," and was known at the time as "Labor's Magna Carta"?
the Wagner Act
The 1930s proved to be the heyday of American Communism through the Popular Front.
By the end of the 1930s, civil liberties had achieved a central place in the New Deal understanding of freedom.
After a decade of Republican domination, Democrats won both the presidency and both houses of Congress in the 1932 election.
The initial flurry of legislation during Roosevelt's first three months in office is called:
the "Hundred Days."
Grassroots protest movements—such as those led by Upton Sinclair, Huey Long, and Dr. Francis Townsend—did much to fuel the passage of the landmark Social Security Act.
Which of the following was not a contributing factor in the winding down of New Deal reform by the late 1930s?
a belief that the New Deal, having vanquished the Great Depression, was no longer necessary
Which was not one of the "voices of protest" heard in the United States during the mid-1930s?
Mary Lease's "raise less corn, and more hell" movement
The emphasis of the Second New Deal was on:
economic security, in an effort to protect Americans against poverty and unemployment.