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Extraneous variable

Any variable other than the IV that may affect the DV that may occur at a random point in the experiment

Confounding variable

Any variable other than the IV that has a systematic effect on the DV throughout the experiment.

Independent Variable

A variable manipulated to test the effect on the DV

Dependent variable

A variable that is measured to test the effect of the manipulation of the IV

Control Group

Is not exposed to the IV; serves as a baseline measure

Experimental Group

The group that has been exposed to the IV


A fake treatment given to the control group to control participant expectancy

Placebo effect

The expectations of participants have affected the DV

Experimenter effect

The actions of the experimenter have affected the DV


1/2 the participants to control condition 1st the other 1/2 do the experimental condition 1st, then they swap, which cancels out the order effect

Single blind procedure

The experimenter allocates subjects to either the control or experimenter group so that subjects are unaware of their group, thus eliminating the placebo effect

Double blind procedure

An assistant allocates subjects to either the control or experimental group so that both the experimenter and subjects are unaware of their group, thus eliminating the experimenter group.


A subset of the population of interest

Random allocation

All members of the sample have an = chance of being in the control or experimental group

Independent groups

subjects are randomly allocated to either the control or experimental condition

Matched pairs

Subjects are pre-tested and then paired together on a characteristic(s) relevant to the study & then one from each pair is allocated to either the control or experimental condition

Repeated measures

Subjects are exposed to both the control condition and experimental condition

Operational hypothesis

Is a statement of the predicted effect of change in the IV on the value of the DV

Convenience sampling

Selecting readily available subjects from a population, with no effort to acquire subjects that are representative of the population

Random sampling

Allocates members from a population to the group involved in an experiment, so that every member has an = chance of being selected

Stratified sampling

The population is divided into groups based on chacteristics relevant to the experiment (e.g. age/gender). The group used for testing matches the proportions of these categories of interest

Order effect

Where the sequence in which conditions were performed (for a repeated measures design) may have an extraneous effect on the DV


Is the body of the community from which a sample of participants is drawn

Stratified random sampling

The poulation is divided into catergories of interest (e.g. age, IQ), then subjects are randomly allocated from each category to match the proporations (of each category) used for the population of interest

Code of ethics

Provides a set of guidelines that must be followed when experimenting on animals/ humans


The researcher has the responsiblity to maximise possible benefits and minimise potential risks


Any negative consequences of participation in the experiment must be extinguished during this process

Withdrawal rights

Subjects have the right to remove their results at the conclusion of the study


The ethics committee must give researchers permission to not fully inform subjects of the procedures used in an experiment

Voluntary participation

Participants should not be coerced into participating in a study

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