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Any variable other than the IV that may affect the DV that may occur at a random point in the experiment
Any variable other than the IV that has a systematic effect on the DV throughout the experiment.
1/2 the participants to control condition 1st the other 1/2 do the experimental condition 1st, then they swap, which cancels out the order effect
Single blind procedure
The experimenter allocates subjects to either the control or experimenter group so that subjects are unaware of their group, thus eliminating the placebo effect
Double blind procedure
An assistant allocates subjects to either the control or experimental group so that both the experimenter and subjects are unaware of their group, thus eliminating the experimenter group.
All members of the sample have an = chance of being in the control or experimental group
Subjects are pre-tested and then paired together on a characteristic(s) relevant to the study & then one from each pair is allocated to either the control or experimental condition
Is a statement of the predicted effect of change in the IV on the value of the DV
Selecting readily available subjects from a population, with no effort to acquire subjects that are representative of the population
Allocates members from a population to the group involved in an experiment, so that every member has an = chance of being selected
The population is divided into groups based on chacteristics relevant to the experiment (e.g. age/gender). The group used for testing matches the proportions of these categories of interest
Where the sequence in which conditions were performed (for a repeated measures design) may have an extraneous effect on the DV
Stratified random sampling
The poulation is divided into catergories of interest (e.g. age, IQ), then subjects are randomly allocated from each category to match the proporations (of each category) used for the population of interest
Code of ethics
Provides a set of guidelines that must be followed when experimenting on animals/ humans
The researcher has the responsiblity to maximise possible benefits and minimise potential risks
Any negative consequences of participation in the experiment must be extinguished during this process
The ethics committee must give researchers permission to not fully inform subjects of the procedures used in an experiment
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