110 terms

Etruscan and Roman Architecture

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Acroterion (acroterium)
An upright ornament placed at the apex and eaves of gabled roofs in Greek Architecture
Aisle
In a basilican church, the portion set parallel to the nave, generally separated by from it by columns or piers.
Amphitheater
An arena with raked seating arranged around a circular or oval floor
Annular vaults
A Barrel vault springing from two concentric walls.
Apollodorus of Damascus
ARCHITECT
Forum of Trajan
-Basilica Ulpia
Apse
The termination of the nave of a basilica or the choir in the basilican church
Aqueduct
A pipe for conducting water under gravity flow. The term is often applied to the arched structure built to support the pipe across valleys.
Arena
Central area of an amphitheater surrounded by seats for spectators
Barrel vault
A semicircular vault over a rectangular space.
Basilica
Literally "King's Hall". In Roman Architecture, a Hall used for public administration. The term generally refers to a rectangular building that has a central section with a higher roof (the nave if a church) flanked by lower aisles on both long sides. A semicircular projection, the apse, was often set at one or both of the shorter ends. Early Christians adapted the form as a basis for church design, replacing one apse with the main entrance and establishing a processional axis the length of the building. The altar was placed in the apse at the end.
Brick stamps
Caldarium
The hot or sweating bath chamber in Roman baths or thermae
Cavea
Seating sections in an amphitheater
Cella
The shrine room in the center of a temple
Centering
The wooden scaffold or form required to support a masonry vault or arch while under construction
Chamber tomb
...
Clerestory
Windows placed high in a wall, generally above lower roof elements.
Coffer
Ceiling recesses set in a geometric pattern.
columns
In Classical Architecture, the upright structural element consisting of a shaft, base, and capital
Concrete
Roman concrete consisted of lyme and sand with various size pebbles to help it aggregate.
Constantine
KING
306-337 CE
-Basilica of Constantine and Maxentius
Cross vault (groin vault)
An architecture groin vault is formed when two barrel vaults intersect.
Curia
A council or court with religious aspects
Diocletian
KING
284-305 CE
-Roman Baths
Dome
A continuously curved roof over a polygonal or circular plan, generally having a semicircular or or elliptical section.
Engaged column
A half-round column attached to a wall
Etruria
LOCATION
- Region of Southern Italy
- Homeland of Etruscans
- From Tiber river to Arno, and eventually expands to cover most of Italy
Exedra
A semicircular niche, often used as a seat of honor or place for a statute. (Pantheon)
Forum (plural = fora)
In Roman towns, the open space near the center used for commerce and civic life.
Forum Romanum
-Marketplace
-Political Meeting place
-"Forum Romanum"
• Originally a swampy land between hills
• Drained by Cloaca Maxima
• Main market and assembly space
• Senate and Comitium
Civic Center-Civic life in Rome was focused here. Law, religion, government and commerce mingled
- Law Courts (Basilicas)
- Temples, Religious space
• Sacred processional road
Frigidarium
The cold-water baths in a Roman thermae
Hemicycle
A semicircular room or recess
Hypocaust
Below floor heating
-Stack of tile beneath the floor
-Hollow terra cotta tubes in the walls
Hypogeum
A word that literally translates to underground. In relation to the Colosseum, it was the area directly beneath the wooden floor of the amphitheater. It consisted of cages for animals and men and also sophisticated equipment to raise and lower men, beasts and scenery into the Colosseum.
Imperial Fora
series of monumental fora constructed in Rome
Keystone
The central voussoir of an arch
Latium
- A region in Western Italy, left bank of Tiber River
- Homeland of Rome
- From Tiber River down south
Nave
The western arm of a basilican church
Necropolis
City of the dead or cemetery often partly built above ground
Opus incertum
Roman walls built of irregularly shaped stones facing a concrete core.
Opus quadratum
A Roman wall built of squared masonry
Podium
raised platform
Pozzolana
A volcanic ash containing silicon and aluminum, which will harden as a cement when ground fine and mixed with lime and water.
-Allowed Roman concrete to set under water
Pronaos
A vestibule or antechamber to the shrine room of a Greek Temple
Pseudoperipteral
Columns along the front and engaged columns around the other ends.
Pumice
A type of igneous rock that contains air bubbles
Radial vaults
Relieving arch
an arch which redistributes weight above a lintel
Spandrel
A wall surface, ornamented or unornamented, between major architectural elements such as windows or arches.
Stadium of Domitian
-Stadium footraces
-Piazza Navona is built on foundation
Stucco
Slow setting plaster made of various ingredients
Taberna (shop)
Single room shop covered by a barrel vault
Tepidarium
The warm-water chamber in Roman baths or thermae.
Theater
...
Thermae
Roman baths, usually containing rooms for hot-, warm-, and cold-water bathing.
Trajan
KING
98-117 CE
-Forum of Trajan
Travertine
Ochre-, amber-, or cream-colored textured limestone, pitted with irregular holes, and with random dark graining used for paving
Tribunal
Any place from which a speech can be prominently made
Triumphal arch
In Roman architecture, a gateway structure, with one or three arched openings, built to celebrate the return of a conquering army.
Tuscan "Doric"
An order based on Etruscan architecture, employing unfluted columns and simplified capitals
Velarium
Awning over the cavea of an Ancient Roman Court
Vitruvius
ARCHITECT
Defined the orders of architecture
Voissoir
A wedge shaped masonry unit set to form an arch.
Volcanic tuff
Commonly used for the foundations of Etruscan and Roman temples
Drawing of a Roman temple (plan and elevation), based upon description by Vitruvius
Architectural elements ("anatomy") of an arch
"Arch of Augustus"
Perugia, Italy
-Etruscan use of the arch in Pre-Roman Italy
-Voussoir
-Centering
-Relief Arch
Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia
Palestrina
2nd-1st century BCE
Pont du Gard
Nimes, France
20-16 BCE
- Roman Aqueducts
- Opus quadratum
- Stuck Out Rocks:
• Scaffolding repair
• Thinking ahead for future needs
Temple of Portunus (formerly called "Fortuna Virilis")
Rome
2nd century BCE
- Pseudoperipteral Plan
- Ionic Columns
Maison Carrée
Nîmes, France
c. 10 CE
- Corinthian columns
- Pseudoperipteral Plan
Forum of Trajan
Rome
c. 100-114 CE
ARCHITECT: Apollodorus of Damascus
- Largest Imperial Forum in Rome
- Formal Axial Entrance
- Courtyard with Equestrian Statue
- Colonnades
- Hemicycles within colonnades
- Complex includes:
• Lawcourt (basilica)
• Greek and Latin Libraries
• Temple of Divine Trajan
• Markets
Forum of Trajan Plan
Basilica Ulpia in Forum of Trajan
-Apollodorus of Damascus
- 400ft x 200ft
-Central nave
- 2 apses
- 2 aisles
- Clerestory
- Timber Roof
Column of Trajan
- Hold cremated remains of Trajan and his wife
- Relief Sculptures:
• Sloping
• Military Processional
• Commemorated Trajan's conquest of Dacia (Romania)
Markets of Trajan
Rome
c. 100-114 CE
- Basic Unit: Taberna, 170 Shops Present
- Made of concrete core with brick facades
- Goes up 5 level up the slope of the Quirinal Hill
- Hemicycle Façade next to Forum
- Two-Stories covered Market Space (Trajan's Hall)
- Romans were massive earth builders
- Via Biberatica ("Drinks" Street)
- Arches and Vaults
• Arch
• Vaults: Arches extended in line
* Barrel Vaults
* Cross Vaults
* Groin Vaults
* Anticipating Flying Buttresses
Exterior of Markets of Trajan
Pantheon
Rome
c. 118-128 CE
- 1st Temple: Marcus Agrippa between 29 and 19 BCE
- 2nd Temple: built by Domitian, 80 CE
- 3rd Temple: built by Hadrian, 118-128 CE (As traditionally dated by brick-stamps, but new studies suggest some bricks may date from the time of Trajan, making Apollodorus the Architect)

-Design=Combination of traditional and innovative
Pantheon Rotunda
142 feet in diameter, 142 feet high
- Rotunda=round Cella
- Hemispherical concrete dome resting on cylindrical drum
Pantheon Diagram
- Relieving Arches
Pantheon Interior
- 3 Interior Sections
• Opening at the top is the oculus
• Dome with coffers diminishing in size and depth
• Attic with decorated facade
• Corinthian columns and interior niches at ground level
- On April 21, the date of Rome's foundation, the light shines in on the entrance, where the emperor would walk in.
Baths of Diocletian
Rome
298-306 CE
-Furnace Complex: hypocaust (below floor heating)
-Caldarium (hot)
-Tepidarium (warm)
-Frigidarium (cold)
-Apodyterium (dressing room)
Baths of Diocletian Plan
Theater of Marcellus
Rome
13-11 BCE
-Predecessor to the Amphitheater: semicircular cavea and orchestra
-Pulpitum=raised stage
-*Scaenae frons= elaborate stage background
-freestanding
Theater of Marcellus vaults
-Concrete Barrel vaults
-Radial Inclined
-Annular Vault
Theater of Marcellus Exterior
-Travertine exterior
-Doric Columns on bottom, then Ionic, then possibly Corinthian.
Amphitheater
Pompeii
c. 80 BCE
-One of the Earliest surviving stone amphitheaters
-Oval arena and cavea, partly built into the ground, partly supported by arches and vaults
Evidence of Velarium at Pompeii Amphitheater
Flavian Amphitheater ("Colosseum")
Rome
completed 80 CE
- First permanent amphitheater in Rome
- Begun 70-72 CE by Vespasian
-Completed and opened by Titus in 80
- Modified by Domitian
WHOLE FAMILY=FLAVIUS
Colosseum
-Freestanding
-Concrete, brick, stone
-Oval (188x156 Meters)
-4 stories (48 meters) tall
-Corinthian pilasters
-Corinthian columns
-Ionic columns
-Tuscan Doric columns
Colosseum Plan
Capacity: 45000-50000
Radial and annular passageways allowed people to move in and out quickly
Annular cross-vaults
Seating: Cavea
Performance: Arena
Basement: Hypogeum
• Provides and area to prepare your gladiators.
• Romans would have expected surprises
• Animal elevators in the hypogeum
• Underground passages
• Not there initially
- Wanted to flood the coloseum the that level to have fake sea fights
- Didn't like it
- Water pipes still exist there
•Why Colosseum?
- Comes from the colossal statue of Emperor Nero (As the God Apollo) which stood nearby
- Collosus: Building near it
Basilica of Constantine and Maxentius (Basilica Nova)
Rome
c. 307-315 CE
- Architecture Inspired by Bath technology
- 300 ft long x 200 feet wide
- Concrete and brick
- Coffered barrel vaults in aisles
- Groin Vaults in nave, 115 feet high
- Clerestory above groin vaults
- Colossal head of Constantine from seated statue in Apse
Basilica Nova Plan
1) How does an Etruscan (or Roman) temple differ from a Greek temple in terms of design, material, plan,
and elevation? For example, describe the plan and elevation of the Roman temples at Nîmes and in Rome.
How do these compare to a Greek temple such as the Parthenon?
...
2) What are the main elements ("anatomy") of an arch? How does an arch relate to a barrel vault or a
dome?
...
3) What are the main building materials available to the ancient Romans? What great innovation in material
allowed Roman builders to go beyond their predecessors (such as the Egyptians and Greeks) in the creation
of architectural spaces? Which buildings have we studied really show the potential of this material?
- Volcanic Rock, Concrete used extensively
- Concrete
• Colosseum, Pantheon, Theater of Marcellus
4) What are some of the principles of construction and design used to build an aqueduct? Where was water
directed once it reached an ancient city (3 destinations)?
Arches and Relieving Arches to span valleys
-Gravity used to pull water downhill
1. Public Fountains
2. Public Baths
3. Houses of Wealthy
5) Explain how the Romans were able to build their structures using different types of vaults and materials
including stone, concrete and brick.
...
6) What are the common design features of a Roman forum?
- Temple, Courtyard, Market place
-Open concept, courtyards, colonnades, usually there was a marketplace
7) How do the Roman emperors use the Imperial Fora to promote their political and social agendas?
-Statues of themselves, so it glorified their power as an emperor.
-The emperor would pay for the major basilicas.
8) What are the architectural characteristics of a Roman basilica? What do the Basilica Ulpia and the
Basilica of Constantine and Maxentius (Basilica Nova) have in common in terms of architectural design?
What are some of the differences? What is the function of a Roman basilica?
Central Nave, 2 aisles, 2 apses where they would hold audiences or tribunals

-Ulpia is one long hallway, Constantine consists of multiple groin vaults.
-Ulpia had two half domes, the Nova just had one
9) Who paid for the construction of major basilicas and where did they stand?
-The emperor paid for them
10) Why is the Pantheon in Rome considered such an important building in the history of architecture?
What steps did the builders take in terms of design & construction/engineering to make sure the dome did
not collapse? How can the architectural form of the Pantheon, both the porch and the rotunda, be
understood symbolically? If Hadrian was responsible for building the Pantheon that still stands today, why
does the inscription on the front say "Marcus Agrippa built it?" Who was this Agrippa and when did he
live?
-Rotunda was new, biggest dome for centuries to come
- oculus, coffers, less concrete on top, smaller particulates, more lightweight

-Front of the pediment is traditional, Rotunda is innovative.

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11) What are the main design elements of a Roman bath? Why were public baths an important part of Roman cities?
...
12) What was the function of a hypocaust? How did it work?
...
13) How did Roman theater (and amphitheater) design & construction differ from that of a Greek theater
(such as the one at Epidauros)? What role do the Greek architectural orders play in decorating these Roman
buildings?
...
14) What is the difference between a theater and an amphitheater? What events took place in each?
...
15) What are the main functional parts of the design of the Flavian amphitheater?
...
16) How does the Flavian amphitheater incorporate the traditional "classical" orders of architecture in its
design? What is new?
...
17) What is "Triumphal Arch"? What does the Arch of Constantine commemorate? How can this public
monument be understood symbolically? Why do some scholars think the reuse of earlier sculpture on this
monument is particularly significant?
- commemorate Constantine I's victory over Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge on October 28, 312
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