33 terms

Prentice Hall Science Explorer Sound and Light Chapter 2

Chapter 2 = Sound
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Terms in this set (...)

sound
a disturbance that travels through a medium as a longitudinal wave
echo
a reflected sound wave
How do sound waves interact?
they reflect off objects, diffract through narrow openings and around barriers, and interfere with each other
What does the speed of sound depend on?
it depends on the elasticity, density, and temperature of the medium the sound travels through
elasticity
the ability of a material to bounce back after being disturbed
density
how much matter, or mass, there is in a given amount of space, or volume
loudness
describes your perception of the energy of a sound
What does the loudness of a sound depend on?
the amount of energy it takes to make the sound and the distance from the source of the sound
intensity
the amount of energy a sound wave carries per second through a unit area
decibel(Db)
how the loudness of different sounds is compared
pitch
a description of how high or low a sound seems to a person
What does the pitch of a sound you hear depend on?
it depends on the frequency of the sound wave
ultrasound
sound waves with frequencies above the normal human range of hearing
infrasound
sound waves with frequencies below the normal human range of hearing
larynx
voice box where your vocal cords are located
Doppler effect
the change in frequency of a wave as its source moves in relation to an observer
Why does the Doppler effect occur?
when a sound source moves, the frequency of the waves changes because the motion of the source adds to the motion of the waves
music
a set of notes that combine in patterns that are pleasing
How does the quality of musical instruments result?
it results from blending a fundamental tone with its overtones
fundamental tone
the lowest natural frequency of an object
overtones
an object's higher natural frequencies
What are the three basic groups of musical instruments?
they are stringed instruments, wind instruments, and percussion instruments
acoustics
the study of how sounds interact with each other and the environment
reverberation
when the echoes of a sound are heard after the sound source stops producing sound waves
how is acoustics used
it is used in the design of concert halls to control reverberation and interference
ear canal
narrow region to which sound waves are directed
eardrum
a small, tightly stretched, drumlike membrane
cochlea
fluid-filled cavity shaped like a snail shell
What are the causes of hearing loss?
they are injury, infection, exposure to loud sounds, and aging
echolocation
the use of reflected sound waves to determine distances or to locate objects
What is echolocation used for?
it is used to navigate and to find food
sonar
a system that uses reflected sound waves to detect and locate objects underwater
sonogram
a picture created by reflected sound waves