Unit 3 Psychology Review (11/1/22)

________ development involves growth and changes in the body and brain, the senses, motor skills, and health and wellness.
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Between birth and one year, infants are dependent on their caregivers; therefore, caregivers who are responsive and sensitive to their infant's needs help their baby to develop a sense of the world as a safe, predictable place. In Erikson's developmental theory, what is the primary developmental task of this stage?
Madeline is seven months old. Her mother is eating a cookie and Madeline wants some. Her mother hides the cookie under a napkin, but Madeline is not fooled. She knows the cookie is still there. What does this exemplify?Object permanenceJory, a six year old, is picking out a card for his mother's birthday. He picks the card with a picture of Lightning McQueen, reasoning that since he loves Cars his mother does to. What does this exemplify?EgocentrismAccording to Jean Piaget, in what stage do children begin to use abstract thinking processes?Formal operationalWhich theorist promoted the idea that development is fundamentally affected by one's culture as well as their interactions with their own environment?VygotskyA(an) ________ begins as a one-cell structure that is created when a sperm and egg merge.ZygoteUmberto is a one year old, and his mother is sensitive and responsive to his needs. He is distressed when his mother leaves him, and he is happy to see her when she returns. What kind of attachment is this?SecureJules is participating in the Strange Situation experiment. When his mother returns, he freezes, and then behaves erratically. In fact, he runs away from his mother. What kind of attachment is this?DisorganizedCarissa's parents let her stay up as late as she wants. She is allowed to pick out her own clothes and decide when and what she wants to eat. Her parents act more like her friends than authority figures. What kind of parenting style is this?PermissiveWhich parenting style is most encouraged in modern America?AuthoritativeEarly maturing girls are ________.at a higher risk of depression, substance abuse, and eating disordersWhich of the following is not one of the reasons for the new lifespan development category called emerging adulthood?younger average age for marriageDuring adolescence there is a tendency to see people engage in higher levels of risk-taking behavior. Emotional outbursts are also quite common. This is explained by the relative underdevelopment of the ________ lobe of the cerebral cortex.frontalThe goal of hospice care is to providedeath with dignity and pain management in a humane and comfortable setting.Victoria has learned that she has metastatic breast cancer and has only a few months to live. She immediately goes to church and prays that she will "change her ways" and will become a model Christian if God will just heal her illness. Victoria is at the _______ stage of grieving.bargainingRoss has learned that he has Parkinson's disease, and that in time he will lose some of his cognitive faculties. He and his wife have a lawyer draw up a document that names her a health care ________ who will be able to make medical decisions for Ross when he is unable to do so for himself.ProxyWhich of the following describes the Yerkes-Dodson law?Simple tasks are performed best when arousal levels are relatively high, yet complex tasks are performed best when arousal levels are low.The hierarchy of needs is the spectrum of needs ranging from basic ________ needs to ________ needs and finally striving for self-actualization.Biological ; socialCici firmly believes that every child deserves a loving parent. She becomes a foster parent because she knows that it is the right thing to do, even though she receives no material rewards for doing so. Cici becomes a foster parent because of ________ motivation.intrinsicSweating and shivering are responses created due to internal temperature fluctuations, and they are designed to bring the body back into ________.homeostasisWhich of the following is an example of an instinctive behavior?infantWhich of the following is something an advocate for arousal theory might observe?When we are bored we look for excitement; when we are overexcited we wish for more peace.Food, water, shelter, and warmth represent ________ needs in Maslow's hierarchy of needs.physiologicalWhich of the following exemplifies extrinsically motivated behavior?babysitting your younger brother in order to receive an hourly feeWhich of the following is an example of self-efficacy?Naomi believes that she can successfully complete law school.The need for ________ might explain why we "friend" people on social media websites, join clubs or hobby groups, and spend time with others when we might otherwise feel like being by ourselves.affiliationWhat is the main idea of drive theory?deviations from homeostasis create physiological needs that then push us to behaveMercy has maintained her body weight far below what is healthy through starvation and constant exercise. Despite her drastically thin appearance, Mercy genuinely believes that she is overweight, often referring to herself as "fat." Mercy probably suffers from ________.anorexia nervosaEmpty stomachs contract, causing both hunger pangs and the secretion of chemical messages that travel to the brain to serve as a signal to initiate feeding behavior. This is an example of ________.how physiological mechanisms serve as the basis for hungerWhich option is best described as a hormone that induces feelings of satiety, or fullness when eating?leptinWhich individual produced volumes that discussed sexual behavior among Americans in a way that had never before been made public, research that was not happily received by all who read it?KinseyWhich choice would you not expect to occur during the excitement phase of the sexual response cycle?erection of penisAccording to the ________ theory of emotions, one's physiological arousal precedes the cognitive experience of a feeling.James-LangeWho was the first theorist to explore the idea that the way we appraise a situation would influence the type of emotion that we'd experience in response to that event?Magda ArnoldWhich of the following is the time immediately following an orgasm during which an individual is incapable of experiencing another orgasm?refractory periodJude is a man who is emotionally and sexually attracted to both men and women, although he tends to date only one person at a time and prefers monogamous relationships. Jude is ________.bisexualThe ________ complex is the part of the brain with dense connections with a variety of sensory areas of the brain; it is critical for classical conditioning and attaching emotional value to memory.basolateralAccording to the Schachter-Singer two-factor theory of emotion, emotions consist of two factors: ________.physiological and cognitive1 - A(n) ________ is a subjective, affective state of being that we often describe as our feelings. 2 - A(n) ________ refers to a prolonged, less intense, affective state that does not occur in response to something we experience.1 - emotion 2 - emotion; moodThe ________ complex and the central ________ are both part of the amygdala.basolateral; nucleusIf you suggest that smiling can make someone feel happier, then you believe in the ________.facial feedback hypothesis________ is a state of being in which our thoughts about our real and ideal selves are very similar.congruenceAsa is buying a gift for his mother, an overbearing woman who is difficult to please. When a clerk asks him who he is shopping for he replies, "my smother" instead of "my mother." What does this exemplify?Freudian slipSigmund Freud suggested that people who are dominated by their ________ might be narcissistic and impulsive.idIna can no longer read the street signs, but she refuses to admit she needs glasses to drive. Which defense mechanism does this exemplify?denialAfter Mike does not get the job he interviewed for, he moves back in with his parents and spends his days playing video games. Which defense mechanism does this exemplify?regressionAccording to Sigmund Freud, an adult who smokes, drinks, overeats, or bites her nails is fixated in the ________ stage of her psychosexual development.oralAccording to Freud's psychosexual theory of personality, the ________ stage involves a sexual reawakening as the incestuous urges resurface. The young person redirects these urges to other, more socially acceptable partners (who often resemble the other-sex parent).genitalWho suggested that men have womb envy because they cannot give birth?(an idiot) named...Karen HorneyMany cultures have stories about a hero who goes on a quest, such as Hercules, King Arthur, and Gilgamesh. What would Carl Jung say this exemplified?archetypesWhat is the main difference between Sigmund Freud and the neo-Freudians?Neo-Freudians reduced the emphasis on sex.Which of the following was one of Alfred Adler's main contributions to personality theory?suggesting that our birth order shapes our personalityIn Albert Bandura's social-cognitive theory, behavior refers to ________.anything an individual does that can be punished or rewardedTammy has a positive view of challenges: She views them as tasks to be mastered. She develops a deep interest in and a strong commitment to becoming a good teacher. When she doesn't pass her first teaching praxis, she quickly recovers and works to overcome the setback. Albert Bandura would say Tammy has ________.high self-efficacyWhat is the main idea of the behavioral perspective on personality?Which statement summarizes the main idea of reciprocal determinism?Our behavior, cognitive processes, and situational context all influence each other.According to Abraham Maslow, the highest need is ________.self-actualizationAccording to Carl Rogers, a healthy personality would result from congruence between one's ______ self and their ________ self.real & ideal________ theorists attempt to explain our personality by identifying our stable characteristics and ways of behaving.traitSally really loves being outdoors. She likes to hike, do yoga in the warm sun, and go for long camping trips. She and her wife move to Arizona from New York so that they can enjoy these activities in warmer weather for most of the year. This process of moving to an area that is most suited for one's personality tendencies is called selective ________.migrationWhich individual is probably not living in a culture that promotes a collectivist view of the world?James, who lives in EnglandWhat was responsible for the development of the indigenous model of studying the cultural context of personality?How many different scales are used to compile a profile from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)?tenThe ________ uses images and storytelling that relate to minority cultures.TEMAS Multicultural Thematic Apperception TestThe ________ Concerning Blacks Test is a projective test designed to be culturally relevant to African-Americans, using images that relate to African-American lifestyles.Contemporized-Themes________ describes a proportion of difference among people that is attributed to genetics.HeritabilityThe field of social psychology studies topics at the intrapersonal level. These topics include ________.emotions and attitudes, the self, and social cognition________ holds that our behavior is determined by internal factors, such as individual traits or temperaments.dispositionismKara gets an F on her social psychology exam. Then she goes home and gets into an argument with her roommate, Lee. Lee assumes Kara is yelling at him because she is just a nasty person, and does not consider that she may just have had a bad day and is venting. Lee is demonstrating ________.the fundamental attribution errorWithin the field of social psychology, a script is defined as a ________.person's knowledge about the sequence of events in a specific settingWhat was the main conclusion drawn from the Stanford prison experiment?social roles are powerful determinants of human behaviorWhat is a social role?a pattern of behavior that is expected of a person in a given setting or groupWhen a person is making a persuasive argument that utilizes the ________ route, they rely on factors unrelated to their actual message to persuade their listener. The hope is that these factors will encourage positivity with the message itself.peripheralWhich type of persuasion approach involves encouraging a person to agree to a small favor or to buy a small item, only to later request a larger favor or purchase of a larger item?foot-in-the-door techniqueWhich of the following is the best example of central route persuasion?anti-smoking advertisements that use charts and graphs to show how many people die from smoking-related causes each yearWhich of the following is the best example of peripheral route persuasion?anti-smoking advertisements that rely on celebrity spokespeople advocating for reduction in cigarette useHenry is juror number four in a murder trial. He believes the accused is guilty, but when the jurors vote it becomes clear he is the only one that thinks this way. Henry votes not guilty along with the other jurors despite what he sees as evidence clearly indicating guilt. This is an example of the ________ effect.AschDuring which kind of situation might a person be most likely to yield to the effects of informational social influence?when the correct choice is unclearIn Stanley Milgram's obedience research, the person playing the part of the "learner" was an accomplice, or ________, of the experiment. He was aware of the true purpose of the research, was never shocked, and was acting according to Milgram's instructions.confederateSuppose you hate reality shows, but you pretend to like them in order to fit in, feel good, and be accepted by your friends, who all love reality television. This is an example of ________ social influence.groupthink________ is the strengthening of an original group attitude after the discussion of views within a group.group polarizationWhich statement about groupthink is correct?Group members modify their opinions to match what they believe is the group consensus.Which of the following strategies would effectively prevent groupthink from occurring?seeking outside opinions on group decisionsFantasia believes that people with blue eyes are somehow more creative than other people. Whenever Fantasia encounters a person that has blue eyes and is creative, she places greater importance on this evidence supporting her already existing belief. At the same time, Fantasia ignores any evidence that people without blue eyes might display exceptional creativity. This is called a(n) ________.confirmation biasA negative attitude and feeling toward an individual that is based solely on that person's membership in a specific group is called ________.prejudiceDuring the international coronavirus pandemic, many people began acting aggressively toward individuals of Chinese descent, blaming them for the virus even though most of those people had lived in the United States for their entire lives. Those Chinese-Americans were the victim of a process called ________.scapegoatingSuppose you are walking down a street. A woman has fallen down, but because there are so many people around it does not occur to you that you should help. You just assume someone else is about to help her and keep walking. This is an example of ________.diffusion of responsibilityWhat is a main feature of the jigsaw classroom?students work together with others who are of different racial backgrounds or different ability setsWhich of the following statements is incorrect regarding social exchange theory?People are dissatisfied if their social exchanges create more costs than benefits unless the relationship is an example of consummate love.Ashley and Mikhail share their intimate thoughts and emotions, are physically attracted to each other and have an active and satisfying sex life, and are each deeply committed to supporting each other. They share ________ love.consummateWhen Jacob came home from work upset about a disagreement he'd had with his boss, his wife Jodi sat down to listen to him. She imagined the argument that had occurred, and tried to understand how her husband was feeling. Jodi is demonstrating a high level of ________.empathyWhat is the single most important fact that predicts the person with whom you will become friends or have a romantic relationship?the amount of contact you have with peopleHeather and Mike share the household chores as equally as possible. They take turns with the cooking and driving their son to daycare. Both of them work outside the home, and each of them takes responsibility for child care one night a week to give the other one a break. We can say that their relationship has a high level of ________.reciprocity