Criminology text study guide

Durkheim believed that crime is ______________. He argued that because crime is found at all times and in all societies, it is a normal and inevitable social phenomenon
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__________________________: the process of freeing social relationships from economic considerations; Messner and Rosenfeld's plan to reduce crime;

refers to politics intended to free social relationships from economic considerations by freeing the other social institutions from the domination of the economy (reducing economic strain to reduce crime)
_______________________________: a "situation that presents itself to someone with low self-control by which he or she can immediately satisfy needs with minimal mental or physical effort" (Gottfredson and Hirschi, 1990)Criminal opportunity_______________ states: "self-control is the set of inhibitions one carries with one wherever one goes. Their character may be initially described by going to the elements of the bond identified by social control theory: attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief"Hirschi_________________________ states that capitalism generates egoism and blunts altruism because it relies on competition for scarce valuable resources, setting person against person, leaving the losers to their miserable fate; thus all individuals in capitalistic societies are affected by egoism and thus are prone to crime(Willem) Bonger's theory____________________________: Willem Bonger's proposition that individuals vary in their risk for crime because they vary in the innate social sentiments of altruism and egoismSocial sentiments___________________ criminology: theory based on the postmodernist tradition that rejects the notion that the scientific view is better than any other view and believes that any method of understanding can be objectivePeacemaking_______________ criminology: the work of a small cadre of professors who have done time in prison; this group of criminologists is highly partisan and activist and makes no claims of value neutrality. Their agenda is much like that of other critical criminologists who study prisons; they decry America's mass incarceration and agitate for improved prison conditionsconvict___________ criminology: an extension of radical criminology that concerns itself with the study of crimes and other humans against the environment such as global warming, pollution, etc.green___________________________: a system of mediation and conflict resolution oriented toward justice by repairing the harm caused by the crime using face-to-face confrontation between victim and perpetratorrestorative justice_____________ families: committed to middle class values; hard-working and self-reliantdecent____________ families: norms are consciously opposed to those of mainstream society; fully invested in the code of the streetsstreet_______________________________: - set of informal rules governing interpersonal public behavior, including violence - rules navigate the use of violence and allow those inclined to aggression to participate in violent encounters in an approved waycode of the streets_______________________ in social situations: -child must choose orientation -the home they come from influences but does not determine how they will turn outdecent and street kids_______________________________________: - taking possessions of others: objects play a big role - must show that you are not to be messed with or disrespected - must "keep himself straight" to maintain position of respect and self-imageMaintaining/building image in the streetsPolice foundation evaluation of foot patrol (findings):- foot patrol did not reduce crime rates - citizens in foot patrol areas had a favorable opinion of police than those elsewhere"Rules" of the neighborhood:- rules were defined and enforces in collaboration with the "regulars" on the street - officer would take informal or extra legal steps to help protect neighborhoods___________________________: vandalism can occur anywhere once communal barriers, the sense of mutual regard and obligations of civility are lowered by actions that signal "no one cares"The _________________________ links community to crimebroken window theory