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Chapter 4 Tissues, Organs and Organ Systems

Types of Body Tissues Organs and Organ Systems Homeostasis Human Biology 8th Edition Cecie Starr
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Tissue
A group of similar cells that perform a certain function.
Organs
Combinations of tissues.
Organ System
Two or more organs that work together in a common task.
Epithelium
A sheetlike tissue with one surface that faces the outside environment or an internal body fluid.
Simple Epithelium squamous (locations)
Linings of blood vessels, lung alveoli (air sacs).
Simple Epithelium cuboidal (locations)
Glands and their ducts, surface of ovaries, pigmented epithelium of eye.
Simple Epithelium cuboidal (locations)
Glands and their ducts, surface of ovaries, pigmented epithelium of eye.
Simple Epithelium columnar (locations)
Stomach, intestines, uterus
Simple Epithelium columnar (locations)
Stomach, intestines, uterus
Pseudostratified columnar (locations)
Throat, nasal passages, sinuses, trachea, male genital ducts.
Pseudostratified columnar (locations)
Throat, nasal passages, sinuses, trachea, male genital ducts.
Stratified squamos (locations)
Skin, mouth, throat, esophagus, vagina.
Stratified squamos (locations)
Skin, mouth, throat, esophagus, vagina.
Stratified cuboidal (locations)
Ducts of sweat glands.
Stratified cuboidal (locations)
Ducts of sweat glands.
Stratified columnar (locations)
Male urethra, ducts of salivary glands
Stratified columnar (locations)
Male urethra, ducts of salivary glands
Basement membrane
No cells but is packed with protiens and polysaccharides.
Basement membrane
No cells but is packed with protiens and polysaccharides.
Glands
Make and release specific products, such as saliva and mucus.
Glands
Make and release specific products, such as saliva and mucus.
Goblet Cells
embedded in epithelium that lines the trachea, mucus secreting.
Goblet Cells
embedded in epithelium that lines the trachea, mucus secreting.
Simple Squamos (functions)
Diffusion; filtration; secretion of lubricants.
Simple Squamos (functions)
Diffusion; filtration; secretion of lubricants.
Simpe Cuboidal (functions)
secretion; absorption.
Simpe Cuboidal (functions)
secretion; absorption.
Simple Columnar (functions)
secretion; absorbtion; ciliated types move substances.
Simple Columnar (functions)
secretion; absorbtion; ciliated types move substances.
Simple Squamos (description)
friction-reducing slick, single layer of flattened cells.
Simple Squamos (description)
friction-reducing slick, single layer of flattened cells.
Simple Cudoidal (description)
single layer of squarish cells.
Simple Cudoidal (description)
single layer of squarish cells.
Simple Columnar (description)
singles layer of tall cells; free surface may have cilia, mucus secreting glandular cells, microvilli.
Simple Columnar (description)
singles layer of tall cells; free surface may have cilia, mucus secreting glandular cells, microvilli.
Exocrine Glands
release their secretions through ducts or tubes onto a body surface or into a cavity. ex. sweat, salivary or tear glands
Exocrine Glands
release their secretions through ducts or tubes onto a body surface or into a cavity. ex. sweat, salivary or tear glands
Endocrine Glands
Make hormones that directly enter the extracellular fluid bathing the glands.
Endocrine Glands
Make hormones that directly enter the extracellular fluid bathing the glands.
Connective Tissue
tissue of mesodermal origin consisting of e.g. collagen fibroblasts and fatty cells. Connect, support and anchor.
Connective Tissue
tissue of mesodermal origin consisting of e.g. collagen fibroblasts and fatty cells. Connect, support and anchor.
Matrix
fiberlike structural proteins together with a "ground substance" of polysaccarides that give each kind of tissue its particular properties.
Matrix
fiberlike structural proteins together with a "ground substance" of polysaccarides that give each kind of tissue its particular properties.
Fibrous connective tissues
Strong and stretchy
Fibrous connective tissues
Strong and stretchy
loose connective tissues
collagen and elastin loosely arranged in ground substance; quite flexible and fairly strong.
loose connective tissues
collagen and elastin loosely arranged in ground substance; quite flexible and fairly strong.
Dense connective tissues
mainly collagen; somewhat flexible and quite strong. Collagen fibers are aligned in parallel in the dense connective tissue of tendons and ligaments.
Dense connective tissues
mainly collagen; somewhat flexible and quite strong. Collagen fibers are aligned in parallel in the dense connective tissue of tendons and ligaments.
Elastic connective tissues
mainly elastin; easily stretches and recoils.
Elastic connective tissues
mainly elastin; easily stretches and recoils.
cartliage
mainly collagen in a watery matrix; resists compression
cartliage
mainly collagen in a watery matrix; resists compression
bone
mineral-hardened matrix; very strong
bone
mineral-hardened matrix; very strong
adipose tissue
mainly cells filled with fat; soft matrix
adipose tissue
mainly cells filled with fat; soft matrix
Blood
matrix is the fluid blood plasma, which contains blood cells and other substances.
Blood
matrix is the fluid blood plasma, which contains blood cells and other substances.
loose connective tissue (locations)
under the skin and most epithelia
loose connective tissue (locations)
under the skin and most epithelia
loose connective tissue (function)
elasticity, diffusion
loose connective tissue (function)
elasticity, diffusion
dense, irregular connective tissue (description)
collagenous fibers, fibroblasts, less matrix
dense, irregular connective tissue (description)
collagenous fibers, fibroblasts, less matrix
dense, irregular connective tissue (locations)
in skin and capules around some organs
dense, irregular connective tissue (locations)
in skin and capules around some organs
dense irregular connective tissue (functions)
support
dense irregular connective tissue (functions)
support
dense regular (description)
collagen fibers in parallel bundles, long rows of fibroblasts, little matrix
dense regular (description)
collagen fibers in parallel bundles, long rows of fibroblasts, little matrix
dense regular (locations)
tendons, ligaments
dense regular (locations)
tendons, ligaments
dense regular (functions)
strength, elasticity
dense regular (functions)
strength, elasticity
Cartilage (location)
end of long bones, nose parts of airways, skeleton of embryos
Cartilage (location)
end of long bones, nose parts of airways, skeleton of embryos
Cartilage (function)
support, flexibility, low- friction surface for joint movement
Cartilage (function)
support, flexibility, low- friction surface for joint movement
bone tissue (location)
bones of skeleton
bone tissue (location)
bones of skeleton
bone tissue (function)
movement, support, protection
bone tissue (function)
movement, support, protection
adipose tissue (location)
under skin, around heart, kidneys
adipose tissue (location)
under skin, around heart, kidneys
adipose tissue (function)
energy reserves, insulation, padding
adipose tissue (function)
energy reserves, insulation, padding
muscle tissue
cells in musle can contract, allowing muscle to move body parts
muscle tissue
cells in musle can contract, allowing muscle to move body parts
skeletal muscle
bundles of long, cylindrical, striated muscle fibers, many mitochondria
skeletal muscle
bundles of long, cylindrical, striated muscle fibers, many mitochondria
skeletal muscle (location)
partner of bones, against which it exerts great force
skeletal muscle (location)
partner of bones, against which it exerts great force
skeletal muscle (function)
locomotion; posture; head and limb movements
skeletal muscle (function)
locomotion; posture; head and limb movements
cardiac muscle
cylindrical muscle; cylindrical muscle fibers that abut at their ends; contract rapidly as a unit
cardiac muscle
cylindrical muscle; cylindrical muscle fibers that abut at their ends; contract rapidly as a unit
cardiac muscle (location)
heart wall
cardiac muscle (location)
heart wall
cardiac muscle (function)
forcefully pump blodd through circulatory system
cardiac muscle (function)
forcefully pump blodd through circulatory system
smooth muscle
contractile cells tapered at both contractile ends
smooth muscle
contractile cells tapered at both contractile ends
smooth muscle (location)
wall of arteries, veins, sphincters, stomach, urinary bladder, many other internal organs
smooth muscle (location)
wall of arteries, veins, sphincters, stomach, urinary bladder, many other internal organs
smooth muscle (functions)
controlled constriction, motility (as in gut), blood flow in arteries
smooth muscle (functions)
controlled constriction, motility (as in gut), blood flow in arteries
integument
consists of skin, oil and sweat glands, hair, and nails.
integument
consists of skin, oil and sweat glands, hair, and nails.
Peripheral vasodilation
signals cause blood vessels in the skin to dilate
Peripheral vasodilation
signals cause blood vessels in the skin to dilate
Hypothalamus
a structure in the brain that includes both neurons and endocrine cells
Hypothalamus
a structure in the brain that includes both neurons and endocrine cells
Perpheral vasoconstriction
reduces blood flow to capillaries near the body surface, so your body retains heat.
Perpheral vasoconstriction
reduces blood flow to capillaries near the body surface, so your body retains heat.
Nervous tissue
communication between body parts; coordination, regulation of cell activity
Nervous tissue
communication between body parts; coordination, regulation of cell activity