206 terms

Psychology 201 Midterm Review

PSY 201 @ WOU

Terms in this set (...)

Applied psychology
The branch of psychology concerned with everyday, practical problems
Any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism
A theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior.
Clinical psychology
The branch of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders.
The mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge.
Critical thinking
The use of cognitive skills and strategies that increase the probability of a desired outcome.
The widely shared customs, beliefs, values, norms, institutions, and other products of a community that are transmitted socially across generations
The premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation
the tendency to view one's own group as superior to others and as the standard for judging the worth of foreign ways
Evolutionary psychology
Theoretical perspective that examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for a species over the course of many generations.
A school of psychology based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure
A theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth
Careful, systematic observation of one's own conscious experience
Natural selection
Principle stating that heritable characteristics that provide a survival reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be selected over time.
Positive psychology
Approach to psychology that uses theory and research to better understand the positive, adaptive, creative, and fulfilling aspects of human existence.
A branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders.
Psychoanalytic theory
A theory developed by Freud that attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior.
The science that studies behavior and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie it, and the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems.
A study system designed to promote effective reading by means of ve steps: survey, question, read, recite, and review.
A school of psychology based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and to investigate how these elements are related.
The ability to use the characteristics and format of a cognitive test to maximize one's score.
A system of interrelated ideas that is used to explain a set of observations.
According to Freud, thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great inuence on behavior.
The notion that the subject matter of psychology should be the scientific study of conscious experience is MOST closely linked with:
Wilhelm Wundt.
The first woman to serve as president of the American Psychological Association was:
Mary Calkins.
The notion that unconscious motivations can influence our overt behavior is MOST consistent with the views of:
Sigmund Freud.
The school of psychology that suggests psychologists should study only what can be objectively observed is:
The notion that all behavior is fully governed by external stimuli is MOST consistent with:
he school of psychology that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, and suggests that we have a drive for personal growth is:
During World War II, many academic psychologists were pressed into service, mainly as:
Which of the following would be LEAST likely to be studied by a cognitive psychologist?
Shaping behavior by reinforcement.
The tendency to view one's own group as superior to others and as the standard for judging the worth of foreign ways is called:
Dr. Somers studies psychological topics such as attitude formation and change and how groups influence people's behavior. Which of the following BEST categorizes Dr. Somers' research specialization?
The most widely practiced professional specialty in psychology is:
clinical psychology.
Which of the following approaches do researchers in psychology take to address the fact that our experiences of the world are highly subjective?
They consistently apply the scientific method
The idea that you should reward yourself for achieving study goals is based on the concept of:
behavior modification.
Research findings suggest that when students engage in attentive note taking, they are more likely to:
be able to identify and remember the most important points from a lecture.
Based on an evolutionary analysis of spatial skills, you should predict that Jill will be better than Jack at:
remembering locations.
According to Wilhelm Wundt, psychology's primary focus should be the scientific study of mental processes.
Functionalists relied heavily on the method of introspection to understand the nature and function of conscious processes.
A strict behaviorist would view nature as more important than nurture in determining an individual's observable responses to a given stimulus.
Until the 1950s and 1960s, the dominance of behaviorism discouraged the study of mental processes in psychology.
An individual who was ethnocentric would judge the value of foreign customs based on his or her own social values.
The evolutionary perspective suggests that, on average, males should outperform females on all aspects of visual-spatial ability.
Developmental psychologists generally focus on the study of interpersonal behavior and the role that social forces take in governing behavior.
Empiricism means scientists draw conclusions based on reasoning and logical inference.
You should study in different locations in a rotation; this will help you maintain your concentration by providing variety.
Consistent class attendance relates to higher grades
Anecdotal evidence
Personal stories about specific incidents and experiences.
Case study
An in-depth investigation of an individual subject.
Confounding of variables
A condition that exists whenever two variables are linked together in a way that makes it difcult to sort out their independent effects.
Control group
Subjects in a study who do not receive the special treatment given to the experimental group.
The extent to which two variables are related to each other.
Correlation coefcient
A numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables.
Data collection techniques
Procedures for making empirical observations and measurements.
Dependent variable
In an experiment, the variable that is thought to be affected by the manipulation of the independent variable.
Descriptive statistics
Statistics that are used to organize and summarize data.
Double-blind procedure
A research strategy in which neither subjects nor experimenters know which subjects are in the experimental or control groups.
A research method in which the investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur in a second variable as a result.
Experimental group
The subjects in a study who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable.
Experimenter bias
A phenomenon that occurs when a researcher's expectations or preferences about the outcome of a study inuence the results obtained.
Extraneous variables
Any variables other than the independent variable that seem likely to inuence the dependent variable in a specic study.
A tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables.
Independent variable
In an experiment, a condition or event that an experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable.
Inferential statistics
Statistics that are used to interpret data and draw conclusions.
Internet-mediated research
Studies in which data collection occurs over the web.
A periodical that publishes technical and scholarly material, usually in a narrowly dened area of inquiry.
The arithmetic average of the scores in a distribution.
The score that falls exactly in the center of a distribution of scores.
The score that occurs most frequently in a distribution.
Operational denition
A denition that describes the actions or operations that will be made to measure or control a variable.
See Subjects.
Placebo effects
The fact that subjects' expectations can lead them to experience some change even though they receive an empty, fake, or ineffectual treatment.
The larger collection of animals or people from which a sample is drawn and that researchers want to generalize about.
Random assignment
The constitution of groups in a study such that all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to any group or condition.
Occurs when a subject's behavior is altered by the presence of an observer.
The repetition of a study to see whether the earlier results are duplicated.
Research methods
Differing approaches to the manipulation and control of variables in empirical studies.
Response set
A tendency to respond to questions in a particular way that is unrelated to the content of the questions.
The collection of subjects selected for observation in an empirical study.
Sampling bias
A problem that occurs when a sample is not representative of the population from which it is drawn.
Social desirability bias
A tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself.
Standard deviation
An index of the amount of variability in a set of data.
Statistical signicance
The condition that exists when the probability that the observed ndings are due to chance is very low.
The use of mathematics to organize, summarize, and interpret numerical data. See also Descriptive statistics, Inferential statistics.
The persons or animals whose behavior is systematically observed in a study.
A descriptive research method in which researchers use questionnaires or interviews to gather information about specic aspects of subjects' behavior.
A system of interrelated ideas that is used to explain a set of observations.
The extent to which the scores in a data set tend to vary from each other and from the mean.
Any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a study.
Any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a study.
If you believe that increasing levels of anxiety are associated with drug abuse, you have just formulated:
A researcher wants to see if a protein-enriched diet will enhance the maze-running performance of rats. One group of rats is fed the high-protein diet for the duration of the study; the other group continues to receive ordinary rat chow. In this experiment, the rats' maze-running performance is the:
dependent variable.
One of the disadvantages of the experimental method is:
the artificial, contrived situations in which experiments are often conducted.
If you interviewed a person over a period of time to understand that person to the greatest degree possible, you would be using the:
case study method of research.
The standard deviation is a measure of:
the amount of variability in a data set.
As interest rates increase, house sales decline, indicating
a negative correlation between the two variables.
Dr. Redding has found a correlation of +0.65 between snoring and weight. This indicates that:
overweight individuals tend to snore more than underweight individuals.
A sample is representative if:
its composition is similar to the composition of the population.
Placebos are used in research to control for:
the subjects' expectations about treatment.
The tendency for survey subjects to provide answers that place them in a favorable light is referred to as
socially desirable responding.
The fact that many times researchers unintentionally influence the outcome of their studies implies the existence of:
experimenter bias.
The abstract of a journal article provides:
a concise summary of the entire article.
Individuals who think critically do not rely on anecdotal evidence because this type of evidence:
can be distorted by reporting biases.
Most scientists hope that ultimately the information they gather will be of some practical value to solve everyday problems.
A tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables is called a theory.
The second step in the research method is the making of the empirical observations and measurements.
The greatest advantage that the scientific method has over logical reasoning or common sense is that it results in cause-and-effect explanations.
Descriptive/correlational research methods broaden the scope of phenomena that psychologists are able to study.
Because additional statistical manipulations can be performed on it, in general, the most useful measure of central tendency is the mean.
Research findings that are statistically significant may have no theoretical or practical significance.
The best way to reduce the risk of experimenter bias is to use a double-blind research procedure.
The American Psychological Association has developed a set of ethical guidelines for research that apply to both animal and human research participants.
Most psychological journal articles include an abstract, an introduction, methods, results and discussion section and a list of bibliographic references.
Absolute refractory period
The minimum length of time after an action potential during which another action potential cannot begin.
Action potential
A brief change in a neuron's electrical charge.
An inherited characteristic that increased in a population (through natural selection) because it helped solve a problem of survival or reproduction during the time it emerged.
Adoption studies
Research studies that assess hereditary inuence by examining the resemblance between adopted children and both their biological and their adoptive parents.
Afferent nerve bers
Axons that carry information inward to the central nervous system from the periphery of the body.
A chemical that mimics the action of a neurotransmitter.
A chemical that opposes the action of a neurotransmitter.
Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
The system of nerves that connect to the heart, blood vessels, smooth muscles, and glands.
A long, thin ber that transmits signals away from the neuron cell body to other neurons, or to muscles or glands.
Central nervous system (CNS)
The brain and the spinal cord.
Cerebral cortex
The convoluted outer layer of the cerebrum.
Cerebral hemispheres
The right and left halves of the cerebrum.
Cerebrospinal uid (CSF)
A solution that lls the hollow cavities (ventricles) of the brain and circulates around the brain and spinal cord.
Threadlike strands of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules that carry genetic information.
Corpus callosum
The structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres.
Critical period
A limited time span in the development of an organism when it is optimal for certain capacities to emerge because the organism is especially responsive to certain experiences.
Branchlike parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information.
Dominant gene
A gene that is expressed when paired genes are heterozygous (different).
Efferent nerve bers
Axons that carry information outward from the central nervous system to the periphery of the body.
Electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB)
Sending a weak electric current into a brain structure to stimulate (activate) it.
Electroencephalograph (EEG)
A device that monitors the electrical activity of the brain over time by means of recording electrodes attached to the surface of the scalp.
Endocrine system
A group of glands that secrete chemicals into the bloodstream that help control bodily functioning.
The entire family of internally produced chemicals that resemble opiates in structure and effects.
Family studies
Scientic studies in which researchers assess hereditary inuence by examining blood relatives to see how much they resemble each other on a specic trait.
The reproductive success (number of descendants) of an individual organism relative to the average reproductive success of the population.
The largest and most complicated region of the brain, encompassing a variety of structures, including the thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system, and cerebrum.
Fraternal (dizygotic) twins
Twins that result when two eggs are fertilized simultaneously by different sperm cells, forming two separate zygotes. Also called Dizygotic twins.
DNA segments that serve as the key functional units in hereditary transmission.
Genetic mapping
The process of determining the location and chemical sequence of specic genes on specic chromosomes.
A person's genetic makeup.
Cells found throughout the nervous system that provide various types of support for neurons.
Heterozygous condition
The situation that occurs when two genes in a specic pair are different.
The part of the brain that includes the cerebellum and two structures found in the lower part of the brainstem: the medulla and the pons.
Homozygous condition
The situation that occurs when two genes in a specic pair are the same.
The chemical substances released by the endocrine glands.
Identical (monozygotic) twins
Twins that emerge from one zygote that splits for unknown reasons. Also called Monozygotic twins.
Inclusive fitness
The sum of an individual's own reproductive success plus the effects the organism has on the reproductive success of related others.
Destroying a piece of the brain.
Limbic system
A densely connected network of structures roughly located along the border between the cerebral cortex and deeper subcortical areas.
The segment of the brain stem that lies between the hindbrain and the forebrain.
Mirror neurons
Neurons that are activated by performing an action or by seeing another monkey or person perform the same action.
Myelin sheath
Insulating material, derived from glial cells, that encases some axons of neurons.
Natural selection
Principle stating that heritable characteristics that provide a survival reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be selected over time.
Bundles of neuron bers (axons) that are routed together in the peripheral nervous system.
The formation of new neurons in the brain.
Individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate, and transmit information.
Chemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another.
Parasympathetic division
The branch of the autonomic nervous system that generally conserves bodily resources.
Perceptual asymmetries
Left-right imbalances between the cerebral hemispheres in the speed of visual or auditory processing.
Peripheral nervous system
All those nerves that lie outside the brain and spinal cord.
The ways in which a person's genotype is manifested in observable characteristics.
Pituitary gland
The master gland of the endocrine system; it releases a great variety of hormones that fan out through the body, stimulating actions in the other endocrine glands.
Polygenic traits
Characteristics that are inuenced by more than one pair of genes.
Postsynaptic potential (PSP)
A voltage change at the receptor site on a postsynaptic cell membrane.
Recessive gene
A gene whose inuence is masked when paired genes are different (heterozygous).
Resting potential
The stable, negative charge of a neuron when it is inactive.
A process in which neurotransmitters are sponged up from the synaptic cleft by the presynaptic membrane.
The cell body of a neuron; it contains the nucleus and much of the chemical machinery common to most cells.
Somatic nervous system
The system of nerves that connect to voluntary skeletal muscles and to sensory receptors.
Split-brain surgery
A procedure in which the bundle of bers that connects the cerebral hemispheres (the corpus callosum) is cut to reduce the severity of epileptic seizures.
Sympathetic division
The branch of the autonomic nervous system that mobilizes the body's resources for emergencies.
A junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to the next.
Synaptic cleft
A microscopic gap between the terminal button of a neuron and the cell membrane of another neuron.
Terminal buttons
Small knobs at the end of axons that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters.
A male sex hormone produced by the testes; women secrete smaller amounts of testosterone from the adrenal cortex and ovary.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
A new technique that permits scientists to temporarily enhance or depress activity in a specific area of the brain.
Twin studies
A research design in which hereditary inuence is assessed by comparing the resemblance of identical twins and fraternal twins with respect to a trait.
A one-celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and an egg.
The basic links that permit communication within the nervous system are the:
The insulating material that encases some axons is referred to as the
myelin sheath.
The electrical charge inside a neuron when it is in its resting state is approximately:
-70 millivolts.
An impulse moves from one neuron to another through the action of:
A chemical substance that mimics the action of a neurotransmitter is known as an
Sensory information is carried from your eyes to your brain by way of
afferent fibers
The implantation of electrodes in the brains of animals is accomplished through the use of which of the following?
a stereotaxic instrument
The brain imaging method that uses multiple X-rays to generate a picture of a horizontal slice of the brain is:
computerized tomography.
The portion of the human brain that mediates simple reflexes, such as sneezing, coughing, and salivating is the:
The rewarding effects of electrical stimulation of the brain seem to be mediated by:
activation of dopamine-releasing neurons.
The brain structure that controls your ability to understand speech is
Wernicke's area
When the two genes in a specific pair are the same, the individual is:
homozygous for that trait.
The observable characteristics of an individual are referred to as that person's
The seminal research on critical periods in neural development was conducted in the 1960s on which of the following subjects?
newborn kittens
Neurons are the only cells in the nervous system that are capable of transmission and integration of information.
A chemical that transfers information from one neuron to another is referred to as a neurotransmitter.
Neurotransmitter binding to receptor sites on the postsynaptic membrane is very specialized; thus some neurotransmitters that are released will not cause any effect in the postsynaptic cell.
The structure that connects the peripheral nervous system to the brain is the medulla.
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation is a new technique that allows scientists to create in humans "virtual lesions" using a painless, non-invasive method.
The brain structure responsible for relaying sensory information to various locations in the brain is the thalamus.
Recent research studies have shown that the brain forms all the neurons it will ever have by the end of infancy, and that no new neurons form in adult brains.
Hormones are like neurotransmitters; they are stored for subsequent release as chemical messengers and bind to special receptors on their target cells.
Dr. Small is interested in comparing the hereditary nature of shyness in people; the best method for him to use to determine whether shyness is inherited is through twin studies
Inclusive fitness is the sum of an individual's own reproductive success, plus the effects the organism has on the reproductive success of related others.