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ADP (adenosine diphosphate)
molecule formed from the breaking off of a phosphate group for ATP, results in a release of energy that is used for biological reaction
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
energy storing molecule in cells composed of an adenosine molecule, a ribose sugar and 3 phosphate groups energy is stored in the molecules chemical bonds and can be used quickly and easily by cells
ATP synthase complex
a special protein complex embedded in the thylakoid membrane that allows H+ ions to escape from the lumen and uses the resulting energy to generate or make ATP
in chloroplasts and mitochondria, a process in which the movement of protons down their concentration gradient across a membrane is coupled to the synthesis of ATP
a small molecule (not a protein but sometimes a vitamin) essential for the activity of some enzymes
The process of a substance reducing the activity of an enzyme by entering the active site in place of the substrate whose structure it mimics.
when the energy released by an exergonic reaction is used to drive an endergonic reaction
when a protein loses its natural shape; destroyed by high temps that change their pH and can no longer function properly
electron transport chain
A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.
A non-spontaneous chemical reaction in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings.
energy of activation
The amount of energy that reactants must absorb before a chemical reaction will start
any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions
Process by which a substance known as an inhibitor binds to an enzyme and decreases it's activity
A method of metabolic control in which the end product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within that pathway.
The portion of a system's energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system.
induced fit model
The model of the enzyme that shows the substrate binding to the active site and the active site altering slightly is the
laws of thermodynamics
1) energy can not be created or destroyed, only converted from one form to another, 2) each time you convert one form of energy to another, some energy is converted to a non-usable form (more energy efficient to consume plants because they exist very close to the initial source of energy), 3) also called law of conservation
A series of chemical reactions that either builds a complex molecule (anabolic pathway) or breaks down a complex molecule into simpler compounds (catabolic pathway).
set of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes
NAD + (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a coenzyme present in all cells that helps enzymes transfer electrons during the redox reactions of metabolism.
NADP + (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate)
one of the carrier molecules that transfers high-energy electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules
the act of binding to another part of an enzyme, causing the enzyme to change shape and making the active site less effective
The transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a molecule. Nearly all cellular work depends on ATP energizing other molecules by phosphorylation.
any process in which electrons are added to an atom or ion (as by removing oxygen or adding hydrogen)
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