32 terms

Sociology: Chapter 14

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Education
social institution responsible for the transmission of knowledge/skills and cultural values within a formally organised structure.
micro level
people must acquire the basic knowledge and skills needed to survive in society
macro level
the social institution of education is an essential component in maintaining and perpetuating the culture of a society across generations.
Cultural transmission
the process by which children and recent immigrants become acquainted with the dominant cultural beliefs/values/norms and accumulated knowledge of a society
preliterate societies
societies that have no written language and a characterized by very basic technology and a simple division of labor. *daily struggle to survive.
informal education
learning that occurs in a spontaneous, unplanned way.
pre-industrial societies
societies that have written language, few people know how to read and write, formal education is reserved for privileged.
Formal education
learning that takes place in an academic setting,(a school) which has planned instructional process and teachers who convey specific knowledge, skills, and thinking processes to students.
Where were most old schools and universities in Canada founded?
Church
Mass education
providing free, public schooling for wide- segments of a nation's population
moral education
conveys moral values- the foundation of cohesive social order.
manifest functions
open, stated, and intended goals or consequences of activities within an organisation.
Five major manifest functions
1) Socialization 2) Transmission of culture 3) Social control 4) Social placement 5) Change and innovation
Latent functions
hidden, unstated, and sometimes unintended consequences of activities within an organization
Three latent functions
1) Restricting some activities 2) Matchmaking and production of social work 3) Creation of a generation gap
cultural capital
social assets that include values/beliefs/attitudes and competencies in languages.
tracking
the assignment of students to specific courses and educational programs based on their test scores and previous grades.
hidden curriculum
is the transmission of cultural values and attitudes, such as conformity and obedience to authority through implied demands found in rules, routines and regulations of schools
credentialism
a process of social selection in which class advantage and social status are linked to the possession of academic qualifications
labelling
the process whereby a person is identified by others as possessing a specific characteristic or exhibiting a certain pattern of behavior. *devient
self-fulfilling prophecy
an unsubstantiated belief or prediction resulting in behavior that makes the originally false belief come true.
functional illiteracy
is the inability to read and/or write at the skill level necessary for carrying out everyday tasks.
disability
any physical and or mental condition that limits students access to, or full involvement in, school life.
Charter of Rights and Freedoms
*all children with disabilities are guaranteed a free and appropriate public education
Inclusion program
children work with a wide variety of people
Conflict perspective
education is used to perpetuate class, racial- ethnic, and gender inequalities through tracking, ability grouping, and a hidden curriculum that teaches subordinate groups conformity and obedience.
Functionalist perspective
education has both manifest functions & latent function.
Interactionist perspective
interactionist examine classroom dynamics and study ways in which practices, such as labelling, may become a self-fulfilling prophecy for some students, where these students perform good or bad to the expectations held for them by teachers.
Feminist perspectives
the educational system need to eliminate gender bias and gender stereotyping in school curricula and equalize opportunities in educational programs
What percentage of students drop out of school before completing high school?
Approximately 10% of people under the age of 24 left school before earning a high school diploma.
What percentage of Canadians are functionally illiterate
%17 percent of Canadians are illiterate
What controversies persist in education?
1) Unequal educational opportunities for students with disabilities
2) Gender bias in classrooms
3) High cost of a university education
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