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Blue construction book (Ch.3-Ch.14)
Terms in this set (159)
Deutsche bank building fire date? FF lives lost?
after the great Baltimore fire of 1904, it was decided that a _____ was essential for cities in the U.S.
model building code
the ___ regulates the level and amount of fire protection in a new structure.
A ___ also applies to the renovation, alteration, or demolition of an existing building
Regulates the activities that take place in existing buildings, including the maintenance of existing fire protection features such as automatic sprinklers and fire doors, hazardous processes such as spray finishing, the storage of hazardous materials, and general fire safety precautions.
_____ codes apply to the installation of domestic water systems, sanitary systems, and the like. _____ codes apply to systems like air-handling systems and smoke control systems.
Dictate land usage in specific cities (and are written by the cities themselves). Spell out which types of buildings can be built in specific locations and their permitted uses.
a set of regulations passed in 1990 that includes, among other things, requirements for area of usage for disabled people in multistory buildings.
Americans with Disabilities Act
Occupational health and safety regulations, enforced by state and/or federal authorities such as the OSHA apply to construction sites
construction safety regulations
Is responsible for the overall project and is the individual who actually designs the building in terms of its appearance and layout. Also decides which materials will be used and how the building will perform.
if the building is large enough, a ___ may be called to design the structural frame of the building. Decides the number and size of beams, analyses the strength of the building, various anticipated dead loads, live loads and incorporates seismic protection in structures subject to earthquakes.
Designs the layout of the site, like parking, drainage, and roadways.
Designs the heating and air-conditioning systems and the plumbing systems
designs the fire protection systems, like sprinkler systems and fire alarm systems.
fire protection engineer
Manuals prepared by building designers that specify which particular type of device or equipment is to be used in the building.
a shaft of concrete placed under a building or wall extending down to the bedrock
Thick concrete pads, usually heavily reinforced, which transfer the loads of piers or columns to the ground.
One of a series of large timbers or steel sections driven into soft ground down to bedrock to provide a solid foundation for the superstructure of the building.
used to remove groundwater as the excavation moves below the water table
Internal bracing that transfers the lateral earth pressures between opposing walls through compressive struts.
Braced sheeting used in soil walls to protect against collapse.
Temporary shoring, formwork, beams, or lateral bracing to support the concrete work in the process of construction.
a foundation wall in an excavation that is heavily reinforced with steel and temporarily filled with a liquid slurry mixture that is subsequently displaced by concrete
a system of rough timber structural woodwork that is joined together to support or enclose, such as partitions, flooring, and roofing.
a large, rigid gypsum sheet that is fastened to the frame of a building and provides the surface finish
Vendome Hotel fire in Boston
9 FF deaths
Amonia is explosive in what concentration range?
Board ___ nominal thickness
Dimensional lumber ____ nominal thickness
Timber ____ nominal thickness
less than/equal to 2"
greater than/equal to 5"
___ is the thickness prior to drying in a kiln at a lumber mill
nominal thickness (e.g. a 2x4 is actually 1.5x3.5)
A type of board made of layers of strands of wood cut from logs, with a fairly consistent width-to-length ratio.
Oriented strand board (OSB)
Tennessee retirement home fire
Loss of surface material when concrete is subjected to heat.
Water-soluble mixture. When water is applied to it the mortar can be washed away
The most common type of cement in use today. the powder, when mixed with water, will become a hydrated solid over time
portland cement mortar
Concrete Masonry Unit (CMU)
Natural stones such as granite, male, limestone, and sandstone. Can be used in the construction of walls and foundations.
Construction material that softens when heated and re-hardens when cooled
Plastic that chars and burns, but does not flow.
A mixture of Portland cement, water and aggregates (coarse aggregate like gravel and fine like sand).
Concrete has virtually no ___ strength
tensile. this is why rebar is added to add tensile strength
Special type of lightweight concrete (1/4 the weight) that is cured in a factory kiln under high pressure, creating millions of small cells inside the concrete.
Aerated autoclave concrete
19th century metal that is malleable(can be shaped) and contains little carbon (0.2%) and has been replaced by steel for many purposes.
Very brittle material with high carbon content (3-4%).
Commonly used metal today, is an alloy composed of iron and carbon (less than 2%)
Structural steel has 3 negative characteristics in fires.
1. it conducts heat
2. when heated, it elongates and may push through any barrier
3. It fails about 1000-1100 degrees
Cold-drawn steel fails at what temperature?
800 degrees F
Statin Nightclub fire, Warwick RI.
Plastic panels in which foamed urethane or expanded polystyrene is sandwiched between tow panels of OSB, or OSB on the exterior and gypsum board on the interior surface are being for rood and wall panels.
foam core panels
Composite multilayer sheathing panel system. Ut is composed of polystyrene foam plastic base covered with a water resistant coating and fiberglass mesh and an acrylic finish.
exterior insulation finishing system (EIFS)
___ plastics are reinforced with fiberglass are used for corrugated and flat plastic panels and some automobile panels. This type of plastic will burn and leave a matted sheet of fiberglass.
Typically used in wallboard, is an inert material composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate. It is pressed between two sheets of cardboard to create a sheet of gypsum wallboard.
Bending that combines both compression and tension.
A structural element used to strengthen the roof of a structure over large areas
Grooved rigid material, often metal.
The great adventure "haunted castle" fire
National Association of Firefighters was formed in what year?
1873. Now known is International Association of Fire Chiefs.
The NFPA was organized in what year?
National Building Code was prepared in what year?
National Electrical code year?
complete regulatory documents that can be adopted by cities and states as they are written
Standard for the Installation of Standpipe and Hose Systems
2 of the most important test standards for building codes are?
1. American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) E-119, Standard Test Method for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials, which is used for testing and assigning hourly ratings to fire walls, columns, and floors.
2. ASTM E-84, Standard Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials, which test the flame spread characteristics of interior finishes.
5 types of construction
--Type 1: Fire Resistive
--Type 2: Noncombustible or Limited Combustible
--Type 3: Ordinary Construction
--Type 4: Heavy Timber
--Type 5: Wood Construction
3 components of the means of egress
-The exit is the actual path from any point in a building to a fire rated stairwell (or outside)
-The exit is the rated stairwell or exit passageway.
-the exit discharge is simply from the outside door to a public way.
A 2 hour fire rated wall running from exterior wall to exterior wall on an individual floor of a building, which is used when travel distances to a fire rated stairwell or exit discharge are excessive.
Window dimension minimums for group R (hotels, dorms, apartments, 1 and 2 family dwellings) occupancies.
5.7 sq ft (0.53m2) in area, with a minimum of 20" in width and 24" in height. Note that burglar bars are prohibited by all model codes.
Elevators are recalled to the first floor lobby by activation of a smoke detector located in the elevator or an upper floor. They then stay open on the lobby level untill firefighter use
Phase 1 operation
A FF selects one of the elevators in a bank to access the upper floors. Then use special keys and set of pocedures.
Phase 2 operation
Elevators intended for the self evacuation or occupants in buildings more than 420' as an alternative to extra mandated stairwell in the building.
occupant evacuation elevator (also known as phase 3 operation. required as a result of 9/11)
Fire service access elevator are found in new buildings more than ___
120' in height
Lobbies are a minimum of ___ in area and must have a class 1 hose outlet in the fire rated stairwell adjacent to the lobby.
150 Sq ft. (13.9m2)
regulates the activity that take place in in buildings. applicable to existing buildings and hazards
regulate the actual design and construction of new buildings, providing for minimum levels of health and safety. regulates the level and amount of fire protection in new construction.
4 elements for fire
1. Fuel - reducing agents, any material
2. Oxidizing agent - normally O2, but also any oxidizers that release O2 as they react
3. Heat - a form of energy that is the source of ignition
4. Uninhibited chemical chain reaction - a sustained oxidation reaction that produces sufficient excess heat to continue heating unburned fuel.
Ignition of a heated combustible material when a flame or spark is applied.
The vertical spread of of fire on the exterior of a multistory building, from one floor to the floors above via convection and radiation.
The initial stage of a fire after ignition, usually involving a single or small number of combustibles
The secondary stage of a fire in which it spreads to adjacent combustible materials
A transition stage in which exposed surfaces within the compartment ignite simultaneously and fire spreads throughout the compartment. Full room involvment
A stage in which glowing combustion takes place without flame.
The area which is the interface between the hot ceiling layer and the cooler air flowing in the compartment
Fresh air is drawn into the fire from the doorway and is drawn into the fire itself, this is known as ?
Hot unburned fuel gasses, having gathered in sufficient quantities at the ceiling layer, suddenly ignite. Rolling motion of the flames across the bottom of the the ceiling layer.
flameover (also known as rollover)
Melting temp of aluminum
around 1200 F
The burning of heated gaseous products of combustion when oxygen is introduced into an oxygen deficient atmosphere
Coconaut Grove Fire
Fiberboard with holes in it
combustible acoustical tile
Fiberglass or rock wool insulation with various thicknesses; it may or may not have paper covering.
Lime plaster absorbs heat
3 ways in which interior finishes may increase fire spread
- They may increase fire extension by surface spread
- They may generate smoke and toxic gasses
- They may add fuel to the fire, contributing to flashover
Ceiling tiles made of embossed steel and wooden boards
Sometimes used as an interior finish, a product made of wood particles such as wood shavings and bound together with a suitable binder.
low density fiberboard
Low-density fiberboard made of wood fibers or sugar cane residue.
when low density fiber is used for sheathing and soundproofing it is concealed in the walls
St. Anthony's Fire
The Hartford Circus tent fire was fueled by a canvas tent that was treated with a mixture of _ & _
gasoline and paraffin-impregnated canvas
Hartford Circus Fire
Cellular foam plastic that is used as interior finish.
Asphalt coated plastic
Robertson protected metal
Worcester Cold Storage Fire
6 FF deaths
Cathedral fire in South America
Dupont Plaza Hotel Fire
Ramada Inn Fire, Fort Worth
The liquid particulates of smoke include ____ and ____ acids.
acrolein and halogen
Most prevalent of the fire gasses
Haber's Rule states that any exposure in which the concentration (in ppm) x minutes exposed equals ____ is likely to be dangerous.
Cleveland Clinic Fire
Our Lady of the Angels School Fire, Chicago, Illinois
Toxic chemical used as nonflammable coolants in transformers that may be released during fires
Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)
Plastics containing ____ such as chlorine, fluorine, bromine, or iodine form corrosive acids when combined with hydrogen and oxygen or moisture in the air.
Generally, fire gasses rise due to?
Aluminum anneals when exposed to prolonged heat of ___ and higher, which means it begins to to lose its rated strength
Rapid involvement of a fire situation that goes beyond the normal attack situations that FDs encounter.
Limiting fire spread from building to building is accomplished through several means: restrictions on the area/height of the building, limits on the combustibility of roofs and exterior wall surfaces, ___ ___ ___ between buildings, limits on openings in exterior walls (doors and windows), and fire resistive exterior walls.
The classification indicating in time the ability of a structure or component to withstand a standardized fire test. Does not necessarily reflect performance in an actual fire.
The use of high velocity air to stop smoke movement
Gaseous fire extinguishing agent that does not leave a residue when it dissipates.
clean agent sytem
The amount of external radiant heat energy (measured in watts per square centimeter) below which a flame front will cease to propagate.
critical radiant flux (CRF)
Note: CRF test is NFPA 253
The "expected" area of sprinklers that will activate as anticipated by the sprinkler design standard; essentially the projected size of the fire
Assemblies that are typically 1-to 2-hour rated and used to enclose shafts, exit stairwells, exit passageways, and horizontal exits, and to separate spaces from certain hazardous areas.
Assemblies that are typically 1-hour rated and are used to create fire-resistive corridors and to separate tenant spaces in covered mall buildings.
Material applied to structural elements or systems that provides increased fire resistance; usually serves no structural function.
Quality ascribed to a wall, floor, or column assembly that has been tested in a standard manner to determine the length of time it remains structurally stable (or resists the passage of fire) when attacked by a test fire.
fire resistance rating
construction designed to provide reasonable protection against a fire
Substance that helps delay or prevent combustion
Assemblies that are typically 2- to 4-hour rated and are used to create "separate buildings" within an overall structure.
Class II standpipe system that supplies 100 gpm at 65 psi. Intended for use by building occupants.
Flame resistance that is derived from an essential characteristic of the structural member.
inherent fire resistance
A system component that originates transmission of a change-of-state condition, such as in a smoke detector, manual fire alarm box, or supervisory switch.
A compilation of fire-rated assemblies that have been tested by a testing agency and found to meet minimum requirements of the testing standard
Forcible attachment of a thermocouple to a steel column or beem
Flow or air or inert medium that removes any gaseous or suspended combustibles and replace them with air
A 1-hour fire-rated assembly that has also been designed and tested to minimize the migration of smoke
NFPA standard Method of aTest of Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials
An electrical temperature measuring device used in lab fire testing
NFPA standard Methods of Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials
ASTM ___ Radiant Panel Flame Spread Test
NFPA standard Method of Test for Critical Flux of Floor Covering Systems Using a Radiant Heat Energy Source. Also known as ASTM e_648
Standard Methods of fire test for evaluating room fire growth contribution of textile coverings on full height panels and walls
NFPA 265 ASTM E-84
The Critical Radiant Flux Test, NFPA 253, measures a material's ability to ___
resist flame spread. The higher the CRF number the less flammable the carpeting
The 2 classes of interior floor finish ratings
Class I : CRF minimum equal/greater than ___watt/sq cm
Class II: CRF minimum equal/greater than ___ watt/sq cm
I : 0.45
II : 0.22
Standard methods of fire test of door assemblies
UL ___ Fire tests of door assemblies
ASTM E-___ standard test method fore fire tests of door assemblies, including positive pressure testing of side hinged and pivoted swinging door assemblies
Fire doors may close by any of three methods:
Swinging - most common, found in corridors/stairwells
sliding - found across openings in elevator shafts, old factory stairwells
rolling - used in large openings in modern factories/warehouses
Creating fire ares no larger than on floor
1903, The New Law Tenement House Act requrired:
that all stairways be masonry enclosed, noncombustible, and have a skylight for easy FF ventilation
Chicago Iroquois Theatre fire
Sprinkler Systems fall into 3 different standards
NFPA 13-standard for the install of sprinkler systems
NFPA 13D-standard for the install of sprinkler systems in 1 and 2 family dwellings and manufactured homes
NFPA 13R-standard for the install of sprinkler systems in low rise residential occupancies ( 4 stories or less and less than 60')
4 types of automatic sprinkler systems
Employ automatic sprinklers attached to a piping system containing water under pressure at all times
Wet pipe system
Sprinkler system have automatic sprinklers attached to piping that contains air or nitrogen under pressure. Found in areas subject to freezing
dry pipe system
Sprinkler system in which the air in the piping that may or may not be under pressure.
Sprinkler systems have all sprinklers open at all times.
Today, sprinkler systems are ____ designed. The pipe sizes selected are based upon the flow and pressure necessary to supply the sprinklers.
with the exception of ___ systems, sprinkler systems are designed with only a certain number of sprinklers operating.
Density is defined as
gallons per minute per sq ft.
This fire required sprinklers to be installed in all factories above 6 stories
Triangle Shirtwaist fire, New York City 1911
An accidentally discharged dry pipe system can be detected by the presence of high pressure, indicated by a ____ on the ____ pressure gauge on the dry pipe valve.
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