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Cordell Hull

FDR's secretary of state, who promoted reciprocal trade agreements, especially with Latin America

Adolf Hitler

Fanatical Fascist leader of Germany whose aggressions forced the U.S. to abandon its neutrality

Benito Mussolini

The lesser partner of the Rome-Berlin Axis who invaded Ethiopia and joined the war against France and Britain

Gerald Nye

Instigator of 1934 Senate hearings that castigated World War I munitions manufacturers as "merchants of death"

Francisco Franco

Fascist rebel against the Spanish Loyalist government

Abraham Lincoln brigade

Idealistic American volunteers who served in the Spanish Civil War, defending Spanish republican forces from the fascist General Francisco Franco's nationalist coup. Some 3,000 Americans served alongside volunteers from other countries. (858)


Small East European democracy betrayed into Hitler's hands at Munich


East European nation whose september 1939 invasion by Hitler set off WWII in Europe


Nation whose sudden fall to Hitler in 1940 pushed the United States closer to direct aid to Britain

Charles A. Lindbergh

Leader of "America First" organization and chief spokesman for U.S. isolationism

Wendell Willkie

Dynamic dark horse Republican presidential nominee who attacked FDR only on domestic policy

Winston Churchill

Courageous prime minister who led Britain's lonely resistance to Hitler

Joseph Stalin

Russian dictator who first helped Hitler destroy Poland before becoming a victim of Nazi aggression in 1941


North Atlantic nation near whose waters U.S. destroyers came under Nazi submarine attack


Site of a naval base where Japan launched a devastating surprise attack on the U.S.

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