ADV 312 Exam 1
Terms in this set (69)
100,000,000 Guinea Pigs
sensational account of misleading advertising of drugs and cosmetics. Changed consumer perception of advertising.
FJ Schlink and Arthur Kallett
1927 - president of GM
adopted the principle and idea of yearly style change
Alvah Curtis Roebuck
(January 9, 1864 - June 18, 1948) was a manager, businessman, and the founder of Sears, Roebuck and Company with his partner Richard Warren Sears.
Amos 'n' Andy Show
A radio comedy about African Americans that almost the entire nation listened to when the radio was initially becoming popular. 1951-1953. Showed the black community as lazy, bad work ethic, Addressed parenting. Conflicted with the needs and desires of advertisers, they held the purse strings.
published 100,000,000 Guinea Pigs
Associated Negro Press
The Associated Negro Press, a national and international news agency, was established in Chicago in 1919 by Claude Barnett
Barnett was deeply influenced by the self-help/service-to-the-race philosophy of Tuskegee's founder, Booker T. Washington
gave African American newspapers a critical, comprehensive coverage of personalities, events, and institutions relevant to the lives of black Americans.
1890 - Aunt Jemima's smiling faces appears on packaging of pancake mix. Traveled the country and cooked pancakes at fairs. Coined the phrase "I's in town, honey"
1931: overnight success of periodical Ballywho Magazine, which lampooned and parodied notorious advertisements, evidenced the rising public distrust of advertising.
precurser to mad magazine and adbusters
* Who: "Patron Saint of Advertising"
* What: focus on public perception
* Importance: advertising ideas rather than just products
Head fashion copywriter at Macy's
"It's smart to be thrifty"
"Nobody but nobody undersells Gimbels"
Trend of women increasingly filling non-clerical positions in the agency business
radio--> public craving for personal relationships through media.
Invented in 1921 to sign company letters to housewives that responded to contests.
Betty Crocker radio shows, offering friendly advice and reassurance
BBDO leader, 1934
"ideals have been abandoned, standards have sunk...The silly, dishonest, disgusting ads have cast discredit upon the business and put us on the defensive"
Charles Austin Bates
Straightforward copy with feature price and a description in plain English; Legacy of John Powers; Believed visuals to be important
Copywriter/entrepreneur who set up one of the first art departments. He believed in ads that showed price, used simple English, and never overestimated the consumer's IQ.
a. Who/What? Copy writer, issued Good Advertising and Short Talks on Advertising, began Austin Bate's New York Agence
c. Significance/Importance? Talked about advertising and said " it is a notorious fact there he been so much trickery and dishonesty in the advertising business that a man engaged in it sometimes feels embarrassed when he is asked what business he is i
Created Associated Negro Press
* Who: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Claude_C._Hopkins
* Importance: e believed advertising existed only to sell something and should be measured and justified by the results it produced.
Cliquot Club Eskimos
music and variety radio show for Cliquot drinks
Committee on Public Information
* Who: independent agency of the government created to influence public opinion about WWI, George Creel
* What: "Destroy this mad brute" ad
* When: 1917-1919
* Importance: dangers of embroidering the truth
* People accept and expect hyperbole and exaggeration, but not lies
Dr. John Harvey Kellogg
~ vegetarian movement
~ corn flakes
~ healing facilities
~ opposed sex
Dr. Walter Dill Scott
* Who: psychology that applied skills to advertising
* What: Scott developed laws of suggestibility as a critical mechanism of advertising
* When: early 1900s
* Scott wanted to make the marketplace and workplace more efficient through the rationalization of consumer and worker activities, especially by appealing to the self-interest of shoppers and laborers.
* Three Stages of Advertisements
Earnest Elmo Calkins
* Who: Co-founder of Calkins and Holden agency; "The Dean of Advertising Men"
* What: art in advertising, fictional characters, the soft sell (impressionistic advertising), consumer engineering
* When: 1900
* Importance: Ladie's home journal - corsets
* creating demand for a product using more than the product, such as art and design
* less immediate results, building relationship between brand and consumer
Ebony, a monthly magazine for the African-American market, was founded by John H. Johnson
* Who: Pulitzer Prize winning author , editor for Ladies home journal
* What: I believe that Edward Bok has more completely influenced American domestic architecture for the better than any man in this generation. When he began ... I refused to cooperate with him. If Bok would come to me now, I would not only make plans for him, but I would waive my fee for them in retribution for my early mistake.[
Published 100,000,000 Guinea Pigs
Francis Wayland Ayer
* Who: advertising man
* What: N. W. Ayer & Son "the oldest advertising agency"
* joined MacManus group later
* When: 1900s
* Importance: memorable slogans
* "when it rains, it pours"
* A diamond is forever"
* introduced the open contract, which put the agency to work explicitly for the client for a given period of time. Prior to this, agencies had bought newspaper and magazine space for as little as possible and sold it to clients for as much as possible. Ayer brought advertising a new respectability and stability
Inventor of Kodak camera
"you press the button, we do the rest"
George P. Rowell
* Who: advertising executive and publisher; founded Printer's Ink in 1888, the first advertising trade magazine
* What: Rowell's American Newspaper Director (1869)
* When: late 1800's
* Importance: circulation
* George P. Rowell did perhaps more than any other man to develop advertising in the 19th century and bring it to the point from which the expansion of the last 30 years has taken place."
George Washington Hill
Worked for the American Tobacco Company in NorthCarolina. Created a sweeter tobaccoproduct. Turned women to cigarettes.
Lucky Strike brand evolved
head of American Tobacco Company, worked with Lard andThomas's Albert Lasker to advertise to women. Brought Lucky Strike cigarettesout on top, beating out Camel in cigarette sales. Lucky Strike soldas a route to thinness for women. "Reach for a Lucky instead of a sweet." Salesof Lucky Strikes increased by more than 300% during the first year of theadvertising campaign.
Gold Dust Washing Powder Campaign
While most radio stations only permitted one mention of product name, the writer for Gold Dust washing powder program managed to insert in 6 times with different variations
Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company (A&P)
founded in 1859
development of chain stores
became largest grocer in country
Henry J. Heinz
first to start advertising with trade cards
booth, outdoor, and novelty advertising
Mass production spurred economic growth
networks of railroads
J. Stirling Getchell
the first to extensively use photographs in advertising
J.W.T. Women's Editorial Department
* Who: pioneer of advertising techniques
* What: first creative department
* When:late 1800s and early 1900s
* Importance: trademark advertising; branding
James Webb Young
the "pattern maker" at JWT
created first ad or series of ads that would shape theme of a campaign
Odorono - appealed to women's fear of social disgrace
"Within the curve of a women's arm"
John B. Watson
Challenged psychology's focus on conscious and unconscious mental processes as inherently unscientific in 1913. Believed that if psychology was to be a science, it had to stop trying to study mental events that could not be observed. Developed behaviorism. Nature/nurture question was the most central intellectual issue to Watson and his followers. For him and his followers, nurture was all
John E. Kennedy
* Who: Policeman
* What: Salesmanship-in-print; Reason Why Advertising
* Importance: simple concepts that still stand
John H. Johnson
founded Ebony Magazine
John S. Pemberton
Invented Coca-Cola by combining syrup with carbonated water
* Who: world's first full-time copywriter; department stores; "the father of modern creative advertising"
* What: unique advertising style "Power's style"
* simple language
* avoid exaggerations
* focused on facts, contrary to trends
* short headlines
* no illustrations
* When: late 1800's
* Importance: the most important thing in advertising is getting the attention of the reader by being interesting, and the next most important thing is to stick to the truth: "that means rectifying whatever's wrong in the merchant's business. If the truth isn't tellable, fix it so it is."
Jordan Motor Car Company Campaign (1920s)
Written by Ned Jordan, it became one of the most celebrated ads in advertising history where it employed vivid prose to capture the excitement of auto travel.
* Who: co-owner of Sears
* What: Rosenwald Fund for african american children
* When: 1890's
* Importance: diversified product lines, huge profit for Sears
* his giving habits engendered a form of community-building often times across lines of race and class.
Ladies Home Journal
* Who: Seven Sisters, Meredith Corporation
* When:first appeared in 1883, 1 million subscribers by 1907
* Importance: targeting women
Listerine Advertising Campaign
* Who: Listerine, Miltion Feasley
* What: campagin focused on fears and halitosis sufferer
* When: 1921
* Importance: the strategy of ads as "quick-tempo socio-dramas in which readers were invited to identify with temporary victims in tragedies of social shame," led to a new "school of advertising practice."
radio became a medium that could reach more black consumers than newspapers and magazines. Black djs delivered ads which led to more trust in products. changes from ad in periodicals, advertisements now told to get advice on ads from black experts on marketing to blacks
Office of War Information
* Office of War Information
* centralizing information
* as broad of campaign as possible on war
* Shift from encouraged spending to discouraged spending
Parable of Civilization Redeemed
Products would enable God's original and beneficent intentions to triumph
"CLEANLINESS IS NEXT TO GODLINESS"
The idea that a single product may be pitched to make it seem like it's development alone is responsible for aiding humanity in a cause for betterment - ex: nutritional aids that give us vitamins and minerals that we are told we NEED.
Parable of the Captivated
if you want to be a good mother, you want your kid to be captivated and alert at school, ready to learn- buy products that do this
Children will do what is bad for them. Parents' job to lead them in the right direction,assists mothers in the newly scientific child-raising methods by advising themto get Jimmy to eat his vegetables in his soup
Parable of the Democracy of Goods
The "Parable of the Democracy of Goods" was central to the advertising industry in the 1920s. Advertising strategies made middle-class consumers feel as if they could experience the lifestyle of the wealthy by purchasing products supposedly used only by the upper class. The parable was intended to make all Americans believe that they could enjoy the conveniences of an upper-class lifestyle because of the wonders of mass production and distribution.
Powerful source of consolation, compensatory satisfactions (American Pencil Company, Simmons Beautyrest, Hoover vacuums), however the gap did have to be bridgeable
Parable of the First Impression
you will have/keep a job if you look clean
given the nature of job security, first impression became even more important
ads emphasized unkempt nails, bad breath, dirty appearance, sagging socks
Wives were responsible for her husband's first impression
Parable of the Unraised Hand
scolding the parents for being neglectful
Paul K. Edwards
Edwards' study features reproductions and discussions of advertisements targeted to African Americans, as well as analysis of black consumers' buying patterns, fleshing out the portrait of the black consumer
Phoebe Snow was a fictional character created by Earnest Elmo Calkins to promote the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad. The advertising campaign was one of the first to present a fictional character based on a live model amid impressionistic techniques.
the idea that appearance might affect sales
deliberately designed products with a limited useful life
George P. Rowell
1922 - "the family circle is not a public place, and advertising has no businesss intruding there unless it is invited"
first success with brand-name, packaged goods
prime example of how marketers could turn relatively generic bulk goods into far more popular and identifiable products
worked with Calkins
formed Calkins and Holden
used suggestive sales pitches employing lavish art and layouts coupled with impressionistic copy that conveyed a sense of class
* rationality and unique selling proposition
* The rationale means that people are motivated and persuaded to buy the products
* Unique Selling Proposition is the promise or claim that captures the reason for buying the product or the benefit that ownership confers
* you must do the sum to prove it
* to whom are you advertising
Rosie the Riveter
Famous war poster "We can do it"
Rumford Baking Company Experiment
Edwards and Barnett involved in experiment. program had african american reps have demonstrations of products in black grocery stores, chruches and the black community. this lead to an increase in sales which proved that marketing to black consumers was valuable. the company hired some black reps as permanent staff
Daytime radio dramas.
Became very popular throughout the era due to the gender roles which have women home alone in the day
1912 - "Population and its Distribution", listed virtually every store by category and state
rising public distrust
published Your Money's Worth with FJ Schlink
suggested that consumers create a test service to provide an objective source of information about a product
"The Penalty of Leadership" Campaign (Cadillac)
only ran once
no illustrations, no mechanical details, no mention of automobiles.
Landmark in atmospheric/impressionistic soft-sell style
* Who: businessman and philanthropist
* What:as a copywriter, he revolutionized advertising with his work on advertisements for luxury cars by General Motors, including Cadillacs. His best-known advertisement, written in 1915, is called "The Penalty of Leadership."
* When: 1915
* Importance: The real suggestion to convey is that the man manufacturing the product is an honest man, and that the product is an honest product, to be preferred above all others
move products farther, wider, faster
advertising for automobiles
earliest known american advertising agent
War Advertising Council
formed in 1942
produced the largest, most extensive advertising campaign in history
* Themes in Wartime Advertising
* The Nature of The Enemy
* The Nature of Our Allies
* The Need to Work
* The Need to Fight
* The Need to Sacrifice
* What We're Fighting For
William B. Ziff
founded publishing company William B Ziff Company in 1920. to keep company affloat he worked as ad rep for black newspapers. Got attention of clients by distributing pamphlets on black consumers. he published "the negro market" which described the overlooked black consumer market