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CGS exam 3
Terms in this set (135)
What does the internal hard disk normally store?
operating systems, software programs and other files
On a hard disk each track is divided into invisible wedge-shaped sections called
________ are a popular solution for individuals and businesses where access speed is not essential, but capacity and durability are crucial
examples of secondary storage
Hard Drives, SSD, USB Drives, CD-ROM, DVD-ROM, Blu-Ray, SD Cards
How does an external hard drive connect to a computer?
By plugging it in
Storage that retains its data after the power is turned off is referred to as
The process of accessing information from secondary storage devices is referred to as ________
The ________ of a secondary storage device indicates how much data the storage medium can hold
_______measures the amount of time required by the storage device to retrieve data and programs?
What is file compression and what is it used for? What is file decompression?
Compression is referred to as an encoder, and one that performs the reversal of that process is decompression as a decoder.
You must first decompress a file before you compress it
his process improves system performance by acting as a temporary high-speed holding area between a secondary storage device and the CPU.
Know the characteristics of RAID storage.
Expanding external storage, improving access speed, and providing reliable storage.
What are 4 ways to improve the performance of a Hard Disk?
disk caching, RAID, and file compression
What are examples of solid state storage?
Flash memory Cards, and USB drives
What type of storage technology does a cell phone use?
SD memory cards
Optical disks use ___________ to represent data.
pits and lands
Know about CD-RW, DVD-ROM drives, Ultra HD Blu-ray and Blu-ray. What does the R in DVD-R stand for?
How are solid state storage devices and hard disks different?
have no moving parts
What is it called when servers on the Internet supply applications as a service, rather than a product?
What is cloud storage?
a place to save your files and access anywhere with an internet connection
What is disc caching?
provides a temporary high-speed holding area between a secondary storage device and the CPU; improves performance by anticipating data needs and reducing time to access data from secondary storage
________ speed is the measure of the amount of time required by a storage device to retrieve data and programs
What are hybrid drives?
Storage drives that contain both solid-state storage and hard disks in an attempt to gain the speed and power benefits of SSDs while still having the low cost and large capacity of hard drives.
What does WiMax stand for?
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access
Which of the wireless connections is considered a line-of-sight medium?
Three common storage options discussed in your text are hard disk, ________, and solid-state storage.
USB drives are also known as _______ drives.
Which of the physical connections is the fastest?
One of the most dramatic changes in connectivity and communications in the past few years has been ________.
widespread use of mobile devices with internet connection
Know the wireless connections and physical connections
Wireless connections: do not use a solid substance to connect; uses the air itself
Most use radio waves to communicate
Twisted-pair cable pairs of copper wire twisted together. both telephone lines and thermal are twisted pairs.
Ethernet cable consists of twisted pair cables; slowest; being phased out by more advanced and reliable media
Coaxial cable- single solid copper core; 80 times transmission of twisted pair; television and computer networks
Fiber optic- transmits as pulses of light through tiny tubes of glass more secure and reliable; best over limited distances; lighter, more reliable, and faster than coaxial cable.
Which devices originate and accept messages in the form of data, information, and/or instructions?
sending and receiving devices
in a communication system, which devices convert messages into packets that can travel across the communication channel?
Microwave communication uses high-frequency _______.
is a term relating to sending data to a satellite
The GPS device in an automobile uses which communication channel?
A service that uses existing phone lines to provide high-speed connections is called
DSL: digital subscriber line
Cellular services use ________ to provide wireless connectivity to the Internet for smartphones
3g and 4g cellular networks
The capacity of a communication channel is measured in ________
Know the types of bandwidth.
voiceband, medium band, broadband, baseband
Every computer on the Internet has a unique numeric address called a(n)
________ is the process of breaking down information sent or transmitted across the Internet into small parts.
What is TCP/IP?
TCP/IP is short for Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol. This is a set of protocol layers that is designed to make data exchange possible on different types of computer networks, also known as heterogeneous network.
The ________ is the central node that coordinates the flow of data by sending messages directly between the sender and receiver nodes.
In a computer network, this node that requests and uses resources available from other nodes
This device enables connectivity between two LANS or a LAN and a larger network.
A wireless access point that provides Internet access in a public place such as a coffee shop, library, bookstore, or university.
______, A network topology in which the central node is connected to two or more subordinate nodes that, in turn, are connected to other subordinate nodes.
This type of network strategy uses central servers to coordinate and supply services to other nodes on the network.
Organizations use the _________ to allow suppliers and others limited access to their networks.
All communications between a company's internal networks and the outside world pass through this server
What is a VPN?
What is a mesh network?
When devices are connected to each other in varying ways
The actual connecting or transmission medium that carries the message in a communication system is called the ________
________ is a high-frequency transmission medium that has a single solid-copper core.
________ is the name of the process of converting from analog to digital.
_______ uses standard telephone lines to provide high-speed connections
DSL digital subscriber line
_______ transmits data as pulses of light through tiny tubes of glass.
What is a local area network?
a group of computers confined to a small geographic area such as a single building
What is a gateway network?
a device that allows one LAN to be linked to other LANs or to larger networks
A LAN set up for a household's personal use is called a(n) ________ network
_______ are countrywide and worldwide networks
A(n) ________ area network is a type of wireless network that works within your immediate surroundings to connect cell phones to headsets, controllers to game systems, and so on
What is a client/server network?
A network that uses a server to enable clients to share data, data storage space, and devices
What is an intranet?
a private network within an organization that resembles the Internet
What is an extranet?
a private, corporate computer network that links company departments, employees, and databases to suppliers, customers, and others outside the organization
What is a server?
a computer dedicated to providing information in response to requests
In a wireless LAN, all communications pass through the network's centrally located wireless access point or ________ station
WLAN (wireless LAN)
________ describes how a network is arranged and how resources are coordinated and shared
Most firewalls include a special computer called a(n) ________ server to manage communications between the internal networks and the outside world
People that collect, analyze, and sell personal data are called ________
What are cookies and what are they used for?
are used to tell the server that users have returned to a particular website, a piece of data from a website that is stored within a web browser
These programs record virtually everything you do on your computer and are used by employers to search employee email and computer files
Employee monitoring software
Programs used to secretly record an individual's activities on the Internet are called ________.
Which type of program would likely be used by investigators to record a potential suspects' Internet activities?
A "cracker" is what type of computer criminal?
an individual who attempts to access computer systems without authorization
Most browsers offer this, which ensures that your browsing activity is not recorded on your hard disk.
What is malware and what types of malware are there?
What type of program replicates itself and clogs computers and networks.
Free computer games and free screen saver programs are typical carriers of ________.
What is a denial of service attack?
An attack that prevents the system from receiving, processing, or responding to legitimate traffic or requests for resources and objects
What is an internet scam?
a dishonest scheme or fraud using the internet
What is cyberbullying?
the use of electronic communication to bully a person, typically by sending messages of an intimidating or threatening nature.
The most significant concerns for implementation of computer technology involve ________, security, and ethics.
According to which law is it illegal for an owner of a commercial program to make backup copies for their personal use and resell or give them away?
Digital Millennium copyright act
Corporations often use this to prevent copyright violations.
DRM (Digital rights management)
This uses software to try thousands of common words sequentially in an attempt to gain unauthorized access to a user's account.
This type of Wi-Fi hotspot operates close to a legitimate Wi-Fi hotspot and steals information such as usernames and passwords.
The process of coding information to make it unreadable except to those who have a special piece of information known as a key
A ________ acts as a security buffer between a corporation's private network and all external networks.
What is wireless network encryption and what is the most common type?
WIFI security procols
Know measures to protect computer security
________ is concerned with protecting software and data from unauthorized tampering or damage.
This is a legal concept that gives content creators the right to control use and distribution of their work.
This law gives you the right to look at your personal records held by government agencies.
FOIA (Freedom of information act )
Computer criminals that create and spread viruses are punished under this law.
Computer fraud and abuse act
______, a privacy issue, relates to the responsibility of controlling who is able to use data.
The collection of data can be searched to find all the action of one person creates a(n) ________ that reveals a highly detailed account of your life.
________ is the illegal assumption of someone's identity for the purposes of economic gain.
_______ store information about the current session, your general preferences, and your activity on the website.
_____ are used by advertising companies to keep track of your web activity as you move from one site to the next.
A ________ is a computer criminal who creates and distributes malicious programs or malware
_______ are invisible images or HTML code hidden within a web page or e-mail message and are used to transmit information without your knowledge.
______ are programs that migrate through networks and operating systems and attach themselves to various other programs and databases.
A(n) ________ attempts to slow down or stop a computer system or network by sending repetitive requests for information.
A deceptive act, using the Internet, to trick people into spending their money and time for no gain is called an Internet ________
______ attempts to trick Internet users into thinking a fake but official-looking website or e-mail is legitimate.
Computers infected by a virus, worm, or Trojan horse that allows them to be remotely controlled for malicious purposes are called ________
_______ is the use of the Internet to send or post content intended to hurt or embarrass another person
A(n) ________ Wi-Fi hotspot imitates a legitimate free Wi-Fi hotspot in order to capture personal information.
________ is the process of coding information to make it unreadable except to those who have a special piece of information known as a key.
_______ scanning devices use fingerprints and iris scanners to identify individuals.
______ encrypt connections between company networks and remote users, such as workers connecting from home, creating a secure virtual connection to a company LAN across the Internet.
virtual private networks
______ is concerned with protecting software and data from unauthorized tampering or damage.
As a security buffer, all electronic communications coming into and leaving a corporation must be evaluated by the ________.
A ________ attack uses software to try thousands of common words sequentially in an attempt to gain unauthorized access to a user's account.
_____ is representing some other person's work and ideas as your own without giving credit to the original source.
________ are malicious programs that come into a computer system disguised as something else such as a free computer game or screen saver
What is does an Information systems consist of?
software, hardware, and telecommunication networks
What is your digital footprint and what can it reveal?
refers to the trail of data you leave when using the internet
Are Identity theft and mistaken identity are the same?
What does a web browser's privacy mode do?
Won't save your history
What is a web bug?
- 1x1 pixel image embedded on web page
- fetched from a different server than the web page
- Information about you sent to third parties w/o your knowledge or consent via cookies
What is a keylogger and how are they used both legally and illegally?
What is antispyware or a spy removal program?
How does the archiving and search features of the web make your online identity vunerable?
What does computer security focus on?
Can identity thieves benefit from you posting personal information such as your birth date, family member names, and home address?
What is privacy and what are the 3 primary privacy issues?
authentifications, access control, and data confidentiality
Is the practice of defending computers, servers, mobile devices, electronic systems, and networks
What are Rogue Wi-Fi hotspots?
can impersonate legitimate wifi networks
can be middle man for attacks to sniff network traffic and steal credentials
What are Biometric scanning devices?
What is spyware and how has it evolved?
What is a dictionary attack?
A dictionary attack tries using every word in a word list (similar to a dictionary) as a password, until a successful match is found.
What is the most common protocol for website encryption?
Transport layer security, secure sockets layer
Is copyright-protected music uploaded to a website legal to download?
Ethical or Unethical? Cutting and pasting material from a website directly into your own report or paper without giving proper credit to the original source
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