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Medical Terminology Eye

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sclera
outer protective layer of the eye; the portion seen on the anterior portion of the eyeball is referred to as the white of the eye
cornea
transparent anterior part of the sclera, which is anterior to the aqueous humor and lies over the iris. It allows rays to enter the eye
choroid
middle layer of the eye, which is interlaced with many blood vessels that supple nutrients to the eye
iris
the pigmented muscular structure that regulates the amount of light entering the eye by controlling the size of the pupil
pupil
opening in the center of the iris
lens
lies directly behind the the pupil; its function is to focus and bend light
retina
innermost layer of the eye, which contains the vision receptors
aqueous humor
watery liquid found in the anterior cavity of the eye. It provides nourishment to nearby structures and maintains shape in the anterior part of the eye
vitreous humor
jellylike substance found behind the lens in the posterior cavity of the eye that maintains its shape
meibomian glands
oil glands found in the upper and lower edges of the eyelids that help lubricate the eye
lacrimal glands and ducts
produce and drain tears
optic nerve
carries visual impulses from the retina to the brain
conjunctiva
mucous membrane lining the eyelids and covering the anterior portion of the sclera
blephar/o
eyelid
conjunctiv/o
conjunctiva
cor/o, core/o, pupill/o
pupil
corne/o, kerat/o
cornea
dacry/o, lacrim/o
tear, tear duct
ir/o, irid/o
iris
ocul/o, ophthalm/o
eye
opt/o
vision
phac/o, phak/o
lens
retin/o
retina
scler/o
sclera
cry/o
cold
dipl/o
two, double
is/o
equal
phot/o
light
ton/o
tension, pressure
bi-, bin-
two
-opia
vision (condition)
-phobia
abnormal fear of or aversion to specific things
-plegia
paralysis
aphakia
condition without a lens
blepharitis
inflammation of the eyelid
blepharoptosis
drooping of the eyelid (commonly called ptosis)
conjunctivitis
inflammation of the conjunctiva
dacryocystitis
inflammation of the tear (lamcrimal) sac
diplopia
double vision
endophthalmitis
inflammation within the eye
iridoplegia
paralysis of the iris
iritis
inflammation of the iris
keratitis
inflammation of the cornea
keratomalacia
softening of the cornea
luekocoria
condition of white pupil
oculomycosis
abnormal condition of the eye caused by a fungus
ophthalmalgia
pain in the eye
ophthalmoplegia
paralysis of the eye (muscle)
phacomalacia
softening of the lens
photophobia
abnormal fear of (sensitivity to) light
retinoblastoma
tumor arising from a developing retinal cell
retinopathy
disease of the retina
sclerokeratitis
inflammation of the sclera and cornea
scleromalacia
softening of the sclera
xerophthalmia
condition of dry eye
amblyopia
reduced vision in one eye caused by disuse or misuse associated with strabimus, unequal refractive errors, or otherwise impaired vision. The brain suppresses images from the impaired eye to avoid double vision
astigmatism (Ast)
defective curvature of the refractive surfaces (cornea or lens) of the eye
cataract
clouding of the lens of the eye
chalazion
obstruction of an oil gland of the eyelid
detached retina
separation of the retina from the choroid in the back of the eye
glaucoma
eye disorder characterized by optic nerve damage usually caused by the abnormal increase of intraocular pressure (IOP). If not treated it will lead to blindness
hyperopia
farsightedness
macular degeneration
a progressive deterioration of the portion of the retina called the macula lutea, resulting in loss of central vision
myopia
nearsightedness
nyctalopia
poor vision at night or in faint light (also called night blindness)
nystagmus
involuntary, jerking movements of the eyes
pinguecula
yellowish mass on the conjunctiva that may be related to exposure to ultraviolet light, dry climates, and dust. If the yellow mass spreads onto the cornea it becomes a pterygium.
presbyopia
impaired vision as a result of aging
pterygium
thin tissue growing into the cornea from the conjunctiva, usually caused from sun exposure
retinitis pigmentosa
hereditary, progressive disease marked by night blindness with atrophy and retinal pigment changes
strabismus
abnormal condition of squint or crossed eyes caused by the visual axes not meeting at the same point
sty
infection of an oil gland of the eyelid (also called hordeolum)
blepharoplasty
surgical repair of the eyelid
cryoretinopexy
surgical fixation of the retina by using extreme cold
dacryocystorhinostomy
creation of an artificial opening between the tear (lacrimal) sac and the nose (to restore drainage into the nose when the nasolacrimal duct is obstructed or obliterated)
iridectomy
excision of the iris
iridotomy
incision of the iris
keratoplasty
surgical repair of the cornea
sclerotomy
incision of the sclera
enucleation
surgical removal of the eyeball
LASIK
a laser procedure that reshapes the corneal tissue beneath the surface of the cornea to correct astigmatism, hyperopia, and myopia.
phacoemulsification
method to remove cataracts in which an ultrasound needle probe breaks up the lens, which is then aspirated
PRK (Photorefractive Keratectomy)
procedure for the treatment of nearsightedness in which an Excimer laser is used to reshape (flatten) the corneal surface by removing a portion of the cornea
retinal photocoagulation
an intense beam of light from a laser condenses retinal tissue to seal leaking blood vessels, to destroy abnormal tissue or lesions, or to bond the retina to the back of the eye. Used to treat retinal tears of detachment, diabetic retinopathy, wet macular degeneration, glaucoma, and intraocular tumors
scleral buckling
a procedure to repair a detached retina. A strip of sclera is resected, or a fold is made in the sclera. An exoplant is used to hold and buckle the sclera
trabeculectomy
surgical creation of a drain to reduce intraocular pressure
vitrectomy
surgical removal of all or part of the vitreous humor
fluorescein angiography
(digital) process of recording blood vessels (of the eye with fluorescing dye)
keratometer
instrument used to measure the cornea
ophthalmoscope
instrument used for visual examination of the eye
ophthalmoscopy
visual examination of the eye
optometry
measurement of vision
pupillometer
instrument used to measure the diameter of the pupil
pupilloscope
instrument used for visual examination of the pupil
retinoscopy
visual examination of the retina
tonometer
instrument used to measure pressure (within the eye, used to diagnose glaucoma)
tonometry
measure of pressure (within the eye)
anisocoria
condition of absence of equal pupil (unequal size of pupils)
binocular
pertaining to two or both eyes
corneal
pertaining to the cornea
intraocular
pertaining to within the eye
isocoria
condition of equal pupil (size)
lacrimal
pertaining to tears
nasolacrimal
pertaining to the nose and tear ducts
ophthalmic
pertaining to the eye
ophthalmologist
physician who studies and treats diseases of the eye
ophthalmology
study of the eye
ophthalmopathy
disease of the eye
optic
pertaining to vision
pseudophakia
condition of false lens
pupillary
pertaining to the pupil
retinal
pertaining to the retina
emmetropia
normal refractive condition of the eye
intraocular lens (IOL)
an artificial lens implanted within the eye during cataract surgery
miotic
agents that constricts the pupil
mydriatic
agent that dilates the pupil
optician
a specialist who fills prescriptions for lenses (cannot prescribe lens)
optometrist
a health professional who prescribes corrective lenses and/or eye exercises
visual acuity (VA)
sharpness of vision for either distance or near
ARMD
age-related macular degeneration
Ast
astigmatism
Em
emmetropia
IOL
intraocular lens
IOP
intraocular pressure
Ophth
ophthalmology
PHACO
phacoemulsification
VA
visual acuity