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PY101 Chapter 6- Learning
Terms in this set (45)
any relationship durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience
consists of learning associations between events that occur in an organism's environment
a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus
a process that was described by Ivan Pavlov. Also characterized as "Classical" conditioning
The Unconditioned Stimulus
A stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning.
The Unconditioned Response
An unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning
The Conditioned Stimulus
A previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response.
The Conditioned Reponse
A learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning
Trial (in classical conditioning)
consists of any presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimuli
Refers to the initial stage of learning a new response tendency
The gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency
The reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of non exposure to the conditioned stimulus
If a response is extinguished in a different environment than it was acquired, the extinguished response will reappear if the animal is returned to the original environment where the acquisition took place
This occurs when an organism that has a learned response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to a new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus
This occurs when an organism that has learned response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimuli are similar to the original stimulus
Where a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus
A form of learning in which voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences
This occurs hen an event following a response increases an organism's tendency to make that response
A small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is systematically recorded while the consequences of the response are controlled
The circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of reinforcers
It creates a graphic record of responding and reinforcement in a Skinner box a a function of time
To send forth
The reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired response
Resistance to Extinction
This occurs when an organism continues to make a response after delivery of the reinforcer for it has been terminated.
Cues that influence operant behavior by indicating the probable consequences (reinforcement or non reinforcement) of a response
Events that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs
Secondary Reinforcers (Conditioned)
Events that acquire reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary reinforcers
Schedule of Reinforcement
A specific pattern or presentation of reinforcers over time
This occurs when every instance of a designated response is reinforced
This occurs when a designated response is reinforced only some of the time
In a Fixed Ratio (FR) schedule....
The reinforcer is given after a fixed number or non reinforced responses
In a Variable Ratio (VR) Schedule...
The reinforcer is given after a while a variable number of non reinforced responses
In a Fixed Interval (FI) Schedule...
The reinforcer is given for the first response that occurs after a fixed time interval has elapsed.
In a Variable Interval (VI) Schedule...
The reinforcer is given for the first response after a variable time interval has elapsed. The interval length varies around a predetermined average
This occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the presentation of a rewarding stimulus.
This occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed bu the removal of an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus
An organism acquires a response that decreases or ends some aversive stimulation
An organism acquires a response that prevents some aversive stimulation from occuring
This occurs when an event following a response weakens the tendency to make that response
This involved species-specific predispositions to be conditioned in certain ways and not others
Learning that is not apparent from behavior when it first occurs
This occurs when an organism's responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models
A systematic approach to changing behavior through the application of the principles of conditioning
A written agreement outlining a promise to adhere to the contingencies if a behavior modification program
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