Process where sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from the environment
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information
processing that begins with the sensory receptors and works its way up
processing that uses previous experiences to understand new ones
the focusing of conscious awareness on particular stimuli
Cocktail party effect
The ability to listen to a voice and block out others
Being so caught up in an experience that one misses out on obvious stimuli
Failure to see visible things when mind is elsewhere
Failure to notice changes in the environment
people fail to notice choices they made
pop out stimuli
powerful stimuli that draw attention
study of the relationship characteristics of stimuli and how we experience them (s & p)
studied absolute thresholds
minimum amount of stimuli needed to detect something over 50% of the time if no other stimulus exists
signal detection theory
Detecting a stimulus also depends on physical and psychological state
Stimulation below the threshold. Any affect is only short term.
minimum difference that a person can detect between two stimuli
To be observed as different, proportion not amount is constant
an increase in physical magnitude provides smaller increases in perceived magnitude
diminishing sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus. Constant exposure to a stimulus causes neurons to fire less frequently
Our eyes receive light energy and transduce into a neural message for the brain
light's wavelength determines___
light's intensity determines___
Part of eye that protects it and bends light to provides focus
behind pupal; adjusts focus onto retina
multilayered tissue on eye's inner surface
order light hits eye
cornea, pupal (surrounded by iris), lens, retina: rods and cones, bipolar cells, ganglion cells.
colored muscle that adjusts light intake
axons form optic nerve
where the optic nerve leaves the eye
color sensitive, clustered around retina center, connected to individual bipolar cells.
most sensitive area on the eye
not in center, not as detailed, not to individual bipolar, not affected by darkness, don't see color
feature detection scientists
David Huble and Torsten Wiesel
these are individual cells that respond to specific parts of visual cortex (edges, movement, angles, etc.) pass info to association areas where it is integrated
order brain processes info
retinal processing (rods + cones, bipolar, ganglion), feature detection, parallel processing, recognition
optic nerve sends info to___
brain cell teams (association areas) process combined info from feature detectors
brain interpreted constructed image based on info from stored imagery. The end result is the scene.
our eyes have red, blue, and green cones and use these to make the rest of the colors
same as the young-Helmholtz theory
Opponent process theory scientist
Opponent process theory
we also have red/green and blue/yellow cones.
After looking at a red thing for too long, red portion of rods get exhausted. Then on a paper you see green.
amplitude of a sound wave determines___
Frequency of a sound wave determines___
outer ear, channels sound waves to auditory canal and ear drum
vibrates when struck with soundwaves
3 small bones
hammer, anvil, stirrup
purpose of 3 small bones
the vibration causes a piston they create to to transmit sound waves to cochlea in inner ear
vibrations effect on cochlea
oval window of cochlea vibrates which jostles the basilar membrane
auditory nerve formed by___
axons of neurons in basilar membrane
contains tiny hairs which send impulses when bent
based on number of hair cells activated
place theory scientist
Herman Von Helmholz
Sound waves of different frequency trigger hairs in different areas. Only works for high pitched sound.
brain develops frequency by monitoring frequency of impulses traveling up auditory nerve. Neural impulses travel at same rate as basilar membrane vibrates, same as sound wave.
individual neuron maximum firing time
neural cells alternate firing and achieve a higher frequency if used in combo
closer ear hears more intense sound, and hears it sooner
Conduction Hearing loss
problems in mechanical systems that conducts sound waves to cochlea (ruptured eardrums, broken ear bones)
Sensorineural hearing loss
aka nerve deafness. damage to cochlea's hair cell receptors or associated nerves (hearing aid no help)
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