FBLA Network Design
Terms in this set (99)
Basic Troubleshooting Steps
1. Disconnect any new hardware (disconnect the device, restart Windows XP)
2. Search the Microsoft Knowledge Base (cop error message, visit site, write error message in "start" box, find article that will help)
3. Disable automatic restart on system failure (restart computer, press F8 key repeatedly while restarting, use arrow keys to select "disable automatic restart on system failure", press "enter")
4. Use system restore feature
Evaluate outcomes to determine whether problem was solved as intended and to determine needed follow-up actions
1. Restart, press F8 key, safe mode with command prompt, then run
Impact of changes that affect interfaces
Delay in audio
Stored in hard drive. Accessibility can be maintained through a password or file permission in the form of permission bits, access control lists, or capabilities. Also can rely on encryption but an attacker can copy the data and use brute force to decrypt the data.
Naming Conventions for Networks, Files, Accounts, and Services
All files have a base file name and an optional extension, separated by a period. Use a backlash (\) to separate the components of a path. It divides the file name from the path to it. Use two periods (..) as a directory component in a path to represent the parent of the current directory (i.e. ..\temp.txt.)
Determine methods for increasing performance (balancing network load)
1. Balance load requests across the NLB cluster for individual TCP/IP services
2. Support up to 32 computers in a single cluster
3. Balance multiple server load requests (from either same client or several).
This balances network sessions like Web or email over multiple connections in order to spread out amount of bandwidth used by each LAN user, thus increasing total amount of bandwidth available
Role of Network Manager and Basic Principles of Network Management
Network Manager: responsible for installing and maintaining company's computer networks. Also, you must train staff to provide first rate technical support.
Basic Principles of Network Management: Operation, administration, maintenance, and provisioning of networked systems. Essential to command and control practices and is generally carried out of a network operation center.
Procedures for Network Optimization and Tuning
1. Have enough physical memory to load InnoDB file
2. Avoid Swap at all costs (slows down)
3. Use battery-Backed RAM
4. Use advanced RAID (RAID 10 or higher)
5. Avoid RAID5
6. More disks that are fast
7. Smaler disks
8. Avoid software raids
1. Keep database trim
2. put indexes on data
3. archive old data
4. compress text and blob data types
5. check and optimize tables
6. use different storage engines for different needs
7. use linking tables rather than extending rows
8. make schema changes incrementally
9. use MySQL config file
Procedures for managing network assets
1. Identify assets in system.
2. Clean up information in the CMDB. Remove info that is obsolete or invalid. Ensure that all remaining info is accurate and complete
3. Create categories of asset models such as computers, servers, printers, and software.
4. Create asset models.
5. Create individual assets, such as hardware, consumables, and software licenses.
6. Manage assets by counting software licenses, viewing assets that are in stock, setting asset states and substates, and analyzing unallocated software.
Install and monitor server software applications
1. located installation program.
2. Follow installation wizard instructions.
3. Restart the server if it does not restart automatically
System Analysis and Bandwidth Optimization
Enables one to capture data from continuous streams of network traffic.
Perform Resource Management
1. Resource leveling- aims at smoothing stock of resources and reduce both excess inventories and shortages
2. Invest in resources as stored capabilities, then unleash them as demanded
3. Minimize cost as much as possible
Respond to system messages
Through adaptive server
Document actions taken (backups, virus prevention, software distribution)
How to backup: Bring to alternate medium (like blank CD-R or DVD-R). Store backups online or another location. Have a computer with RAID that makes backups as data changes to make sure data is protected and updated=ongoing backup.
How to have virus protection: Download security software. Run scan after.
Software distribution: Process of delivering software to end user. Include: floppy disks, compact disks, DVDs, HTTP and related protocols, etc. LANDesk Management Suite provides software distribution for Windows, OS X, and Linux.
Evaluate software activities and execute network diagnostic program for software and hardware
Software peer reviews (by author of product), software management reviews (by management representatives to evaluate status of work done), software audit reviews (by personnel external to software project).
Types of reviews:
-code review (systematic examination)
-pair programming (type of code review where two persons develop code together at same workstation)
-inspection (formal type, reviewers follow well-defined process to find defects)
-walkthrough (author leads members of development team. Participants ask questions and comments about defects)
-Technical review (peer review in which team identifies discrepancies from specs and standards)
How resources are shared by setting up and admin rights (permissions and quotas)
Shared resource/network share is comp resource made available fro one host to another on comp networl. Most common protocols are TCP (the protocol that major Internet applications such as the World Wide Web, email, remote administration and file transfer rely on), UDP (a simple connectionless transmission model with a minimum of protocol mechanism), NBT, and NBF.
Technical support and orientation to network system
System administrator offer technical support for projects
Configure Internet access for network
LAN provide internet access via upstream link to internet service provider, although internet speed is limited by upstream link.
Purpose of network services and protocols
Provides backbone services to Internet service provider (ISP). It provides dialup connectivity for their customers.
Identify/Monitor network perimeter
Rogue devices: (how to prevent on network) 1. create baseline inventory of wireless devices
2. classify all discovered devices and configure your tool
3. monitor your wireless and wired network for new devices
4. Stem potential damage during investigation
5. investigate new devices to determine threat
6. update device inventory to reflect outcome
how to monitor VPN connection: NPS server can be used to track remote access network usage and create log file for auditing and billing purposes. Also can use NAP/IAS API to program disconnections and modify users' dial-in session and permission with specified value.
Impact of modifying, adding, or removing network services
(using a DHCP for example)
adding benefits: can reconfigure entire IP address system without users noticing
negatives: all client systems need to be configured to use DHCP. if not, then they will not be able to access the network.
removed: significant impact on network users. All clients require valid IP address to get on network. So, if it is unavailable, each client system would need to be configured with a static IP address.
Design remote connectivity
WAN technologies and WAN transport media must be utilized. WAN remote access choices include cable and DSL technologies that are used with VPN.
Network cards and settings
Network card acts as interface between computer and network cable. Purpose is to prepare, send, and control data on network. Paths taken by data moving with a computer are called "buses"
Settings: IRQ: network cards use IRQ3 and 5
I/O base address: each device must have a different address
Memory address: designates a RAM location in computer. Use slot to buffer for data for entering and leaving.
Purpose/benefits of proxy service
-server that is in-between real server and application
-intercepts all requests to real server
-network pass through proxy and it can alter
-replace user agent
-accept all cookies (bit not pass them to you)
-proxy connects to server, not you, so your IP is not disclosed
-set up to work system-wide, so systems cannot bypass it
Emerging networks and technologies
MPTCP (can use different connection paths). Can also break mostly every security control.
Configure VLAN to map an IP network
Admins often configure CLAN to map IP network which gives it the appearance of involving :ayer 3 (the network layer)
MAC or DAC (security controls)
Types of access control by which operating system constrains ability of subject to access or perform operation on object or target.
Common Routing Protocols
How routers communicate with one another (routed protocols examples are IP and IPX).
Three major classes: Interior gateway protocols type 1, type 2, and exterior gateway protocols
AppleTalk data stream protocol manages the flow of data between two established socket connections.
AppleTalk echo protocol uses echoes to tell if a computer, or node, is available.
AppleTalk Filing Protocol
accelerated graphics port, a type of interface or slot that provides high speed pathway for advanced graphics
Application Programming Interface
Advanced Peer-to-Peer Communications provides peer to peer services at the transport and session layer.
Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking supports the computer connections at the network and transport layers.
A method used to transmit packets on a network. Ex: ethernet
Attached Resource Computer Network is an architecture using star and bus topology.
Address Resolution Protocol; a TCP/IP function for translating an IP address to an Ethernet (link-level MAC address).
AppleTalk update routing is a newer version of RTMP.
AppleTalk session protocol controls the starting and ending of sessions between computers called nodes. It works at the session level.
..., Asynchronous Transfer Mode is a cell-switching-based physical layer protocol. It supports high-bandwidth data needs and works well for time-sensitive applications. Because the switching process occurs in hardware, delays are minimized. ATM uses a fixed cell size of 53-bytes. ATM can be implemented on LANs or WANs.
Appletalk Transaction Protocol, provides a transport layer between computers.
Access Unit, provides access to resources like fax, telax, or teletax.
..., Attachment Unit Interface Cable equipped with 15 pin connectors
..., The main cable in networks such as buses or rings.
..., The amount of data that can be transmitted over a network in a given amount of time.
..., A type of transmission in which the entire channel capacity of the communications medium (such as cable) is used by one data signal, enabling only one node to transmit at a time.
..., Backup Domain Controller is a backup for a PDC
..., Border Gateway Protocol, a dynamic routing protocol. RFC 1267.
- a standardized exterior gateway protocol designed to exchange routing and reachability information between autonomous systems (AS) on the Internet
..., Bayonet-Neill-Concelman or British Navel Connector
..., Boot Protocol. RFC 951, 1542.
..., In telecommunication networks, a ______ is a product that connects a local area network (LAN) to another local area network that uses the same protocol.
..., a method of transmitting data in the form of several analog signals at the same time
..., transmission of data by a hub to all devices connected to its ports
..., A device that provides the functions of both a bridge and a router.
..., Binary Synchronous Communication sends bits in frames which are timed sequences of data. A possible SNA communications architecture,
..., International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee.
..., Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol is a three way handshake protocol which is considered more secure than PAP.
..., Classless Inter-Domain Routing
-Technique supported by the BGP4 protocol and based on route aggregation.
-CIDR enables a router to group routes together to reduce the quantity of routing information carried by the core routers.
-With CIDR, a group of IP networks appear to be a single entity to networks outside of the group.
..., a computer that uses the services of another program
..., Cellular Digital Packet Data will allow network connections for mobile users using satellites.
..., carrier sense multiple access w collision detection (network access method) ethernet
..., Channel service unit used to connect to digital leased lines on the line side.
...Dual Attachment Stations are used by FDDI
..., Digital Audio Tape
..., Database Management System; a program that organizes data in a database, providing information storage, organization, and retrieval capacities
..., data communication equipment
..., Digital data service is a leased dedicated digital line.
Digital Equipment Corporations, a suite of protocol that provides for data paket transaction.
..., Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol - allows a computer to join an IP-based network without having a pre-configured IP address. DHCP is a protocol that assigns unique IP addresses to devices, then releases and renews these addresses as devices leave and re-join the network.
Direct sequence modulation
..., The data is broken into parts and transmitted simultaneously on multiple frequencies.
..., Data Link Control operates at the data link layer and is designed for communications between Hewlett-Packard network printers and IBM mainframe computers on a DECnet network.
...Digital Network Architecture
..., Domain Name Server. An application layer protocol used throughout the Internet for translating hostnames into their associated IP addresses.
..., Distributed Relational Database Architecture is from IBM.
..., Digital service unit used to connect to digital leased lines on the LAN side.
..., Document Type Declaration (DTD) - identifies the
document as a web page.
..., Data Terminal Equipment - RS232C Serial Interface (usually computer) that is used to exchange data with a modem (DCE device)
...Dial up networking
...Digital Volt meter
...Exterior Gateway Protocol, used between routers of different systems.
Electronics industries Alliance
Extended ISA used when the 80286 through 80486 series microprocessors were being produced. It is backward compatible with ISA.
a physical and data layer technology for LAN networking
Fiber distributed data interface, almost exculsively fiber optic for large network
packet switching protocol, allow multiple access
The transmitter and receiver change predetermined frequencies at the same time (in a synchronized manner).
File Transfer Protocol. FTP, which is based on TCP/IP, enables the fetching and storing of files between hosts on the Internet. See also TCP/IP.
Software/hardware that allows connection to other networks
HyperText Markup Language, the authoring language used to create documents on the World Wide Web.
hypertext transfer protocol are the rules computers use to transfer web pages across the Internet
A network device used to connect several computers to a network. Commonly used in a twisted-pair LAN. A cable runs from each computer's NIC to the hub. The hub is often connected to a router.
Internet Architecture Board
internet assigned numbers authority
internet control message protocol; used to control and manage information transmitted by using TCP/IP. Using ICMP, nodes can share status and effort information.
Internet Engineering Task Force, which focuses on the Net's evolution and operation.
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is used by hosts to report multicast group memberships to neighboring multicast routers. Security problems exist with IGMP because anyone can start a multicast group or join an existing one
Internet Mail Access Protocol version 4 is the replacement for POP3
-protocol for e-mail retrieval and storage developed by Mark Crispin in 1986 at Stanford University as an alternative to POP. IMAP, unlike POP, specifically allows multiple clients simultaneously connected to the same mailbox, and through flags stored on the server, different clients accessing the same mailbox at the same or different times can detect state changes made by other clients
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Unit 1 - Network Design