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Chapter 24 Quiz
Terms in this set (24)
1920s anti-democratic movement developed in Italy, Germany, Spain, and Japan. Mostly in response to economic crisis. Manifested into authoritarian, militaristic government with intense nationalism which resulted in aggressive expansion by these countries.
National Social Party (Nazi)
Party created under Hitler, who became Chancellor in 1933. The Reichstag granted him dictatorial power to address the economic crisis. Hitler held all the power in the government, outlawed all the other political parties, and arrested political rivals. There was no one to stop the vision he established in his book "Mein Kampf" in which he proposed rejecting the Treaty of Versailles and expanding the German nation.
This conference took place in September of 1938. Britain and France capitulated, agreeing to let Germany annex the Sudetenland--a German-speaking border area of Czechoslovakia--in return for Hitler's pledge to seek no more territory.
Neutrality Act of 1935
This act were expressions of a commitment to isolationism. It imposed an embargo on selling arms to warring countries and declared that American traveling on the ships of belligerent nations did so at their own risk. This act kept the US out of warfare.
Cash and Carry
Policy adopted by the United States in 1939 to preserve neutrality while aiding the Allies. If a warring country wanted to purchase nonmilitary goods from the US, it had to pay cash and carry them in its own ships. This policy kept the US out of potentially dangerous naval warfare.
"Four Freedoms" Speech
Basic human rights articulated by FDR to ensure that America's involvement in World War II was seen as ideologically sound: (1) freedom of speech, (2) freedom of worship, (3) freedom from want, and (4) freedom from fear.
Under this act, President Roosevelt authorized the sale of surplus military equipment to the Allies. It was used primarily to help Great Britain and the Soviet Union resist Nazi Germany.
Pledge signed in august 1941 between President Roosevelt and prime minister Winston Churchill, this charter called for economic cooperation, national self-determination, and guarantee of political stability after the war.
The Japanese war machine was dependent on shipments of oil, aviation gasoline, steel, and scrap iron from the US. In late 1940, the Roosevelt administration imposed the first of a series of embargoes on Japan-bound supplies. In mid-1941, President Roosevelt froze Japanese assets in the US and halted all shipments of gasoline. The US actions left Japanese leaders with two alternatives: (1) they could give in to American demands that they withdraw from Manchuria or (2) they could thwart the embargo by attacking the US fleet at Pearl Harbor and then seizing the oil supplies and other raw materials in Southeast Asia. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor occurred after diplomatic negotiations with the US had reached a stalemate. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor unified America. Angry Americans vowed to avenge the treacherous attack on Pearl Harbor. This attack on December 7, 1941 led to a declaration of war against Japan, officially entering the US in WWII.
War Powers Act and the "Imperial Presidency"
This act gave FDR unprecedented control over all aspects of the war effort. This act marked the beginning of what some historians call the "imperial presidency".
This act expanded the number of people paying income taxes from 3.9 million to 42.6 million. Taxes on personal incomes and business profits paid half the cost of the war.
In the Pacific theater, native Navajo speakers communicated orders to fleet commanders. Japanese intelligence could not decipher the code because it was based on the Navajo language.
Double V Campaign
A campaign popularized by American black leaders during WWII that emphasized the need for a double victory: over Germany and Japan and also over racial prejudice in the United States. Called for "Victory over Nazism abroad and racism at home."
Executive Order 8802
Issued by FDR, this order prohibited "discrimination in the employment of workers in defense industry or government because of race, creed, color, or national origin." It avoided public protests and a disruption of the national war preparations because it led Randolph to cancel his march in June 1941.
"Zoot Suit" Riots
Riots that occurred in the 1940s in Los Angeles, CA between white marines and young Mexican Americans. Many dressed in "Zoot Suits"--broad-brimmed felt hats, thigh-length jackets with wide lapels and padded shoulders, pegged trousers, and clunky shoes.
White marines thought that the dress of "Zoot Suits" of the Mexican Americans was un-patriotic, although about 300,000 Mexican Americans were in the armed forces.
Executive Order 9066
Early in 1942, FDR responded to anti-Japanese fears by issuing this order, which authorized the War Department to force Japanese Americans from their west coast homes and hold them in relocation camps for the rest of the war.
Servicemen's Readjustment Act
Also known as the GI (government issue) Bill, this act provided education, job training, medical care, pensions, and mortgage loans for men and women who had served in the armed forces.
Began June 6, 1944, the largest armada ever assembled moved across the English Channel under General Dwight D. Eisenhower. More than 1.5 million soldiers and thousands of tons of military supplies and equipment flowed in France. In August, Allied troops liberated Paris. By September, they had driven the Germans out of most of France and Belgium.
A military strategy used during World War II, where the Allies would bypass heavily fortified islands, take over neighboring islands, and starve the resistant forces to death with lack of supplies and constant bombing saturation, to push back the Japanese.
Code name given to the development of the US atomic bomb during World War II authorized by FDR. Work on the bomb was carried out in great secrecy by a team including US physicists Enrico Fermi and J. Robert Oppenheimer. The first test took place on July 16, 1945, near Alamogordo, New Mexico. The US was the only country possessing atomic bombs in 1945.
The extermination camps in which 6 million Jews had been put to death, along with another 6 million Poles, Slavs, Gypsies, homosexuals, and other undesirables. The Nazi persecution of German Jews in the 1930s was widely known in the US. But when Jews begun to flee Europe, the US refused to relax its strict immigration laws to take them in. Various factors inhibited American action, but the most important was widespread anti-semitism.
The conference in early 1945 among the Big Three with the primary goal of reaching an agreement on what to do with postwar Europe. Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill agreed on plans for governing the soon-to-be-conquered Germany. The presence of Soviet troops in Poland limited FDR's options at this conference.
The Big Three
Refers to Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin. They demanded the unconditional surrender of Germany and Japan. They held their final meeting at Yalta in February 1945.
An international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. It was founded in 1945 at the signing of the United Nations Charter by 50 countries, replacing the League of Nations, founded in 1919.
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