Steam power (18th Century)
• The Day the Universe Changed (name of entire video)
• Coal - gave heat and they needed heat to work with metal and ceramics (it made them break easier, and help prevent impurities. Without the new science they would have never figured it out.
• Industry was up on the hills because they used the fast running water to run the water mill and create things. hard to carry the goods from the hills because they would lose things going up and down the hills.
• Built a transportation network (canals) that could carry 400 times what a horse could carry. (from 400 pounds to 800 tons) very expensive
• Canals solved distribution problem but didn't solve manufacturing. carry things in days that took months
• Without scientific method and knowledge of water and science the next break through couldn't have happened. The science was only available in Europe.
• Push/pull method of the wheel meant that they didn't need the water anymore. Steam made all the difference (changed the world)
• Steam power was different from any other power they had seen. (you can make it yourself, its artificial) You don't have to go to water or wait for the wind to blow to get power.
• Piston, cylinder, cold water = steam (steam expands with tremendous force and pushes the cylinder up. The cold water creates a vacuum which keeps the cylinder going. This could do more work than 900 men.
• They started doing (repetitive) work every day (shift work)
• Increased production x 225
• About 800 workers required
• 100 HP steam engine: force of 880 men, 50,000 spindles
• Revolutionary change: production has never gone up that much in history before.
• Steam engine on roads (trains or steam powered railways)
Faster and Higher quality goods such as cotton and weaving
The Human Costs of Unregulated Industrial Capitalism (18th Century)
- prodigious growth of industrial cities and absence of "safety net"-Townes like Manchester doubled population. - made jobs hard to find
• People had not lived this close together in the history of Europe.
-new kinds of unemployment, • Before now there were plenty of jobs to go around.• If you were abled body and did not work it was because you were lazy and didn't want to work.
• Every time a new machine was created it took away from the craftsmenship of workers. Their skills were no longer needed. (structural unemployment)
• faster production = market flooded with the products,therefore cut back on production (unemployment) and produced only the items in demand.
- conditions of work and wages for adults and children
• Coal fires and flames from manufacturing plants
• Children worked to help with income, (unsafe environments.)• Children and women were easier to boss around and tell what to do.
• 14 hour shifts, Machines close together
• Workers lost body parts (The Maimed of Manchester, a Christian center set up a place where the people with amputated limbs could come and spend the day)
• People had to break coal from rocks and then chop it. The boys could fit into the coal shafts easier because they were smaller
• Coal dust were on their face, (breathing in coal causes cancer and lung diseases)
• Spreading of air born diseases such as Tuberculosis (diseases spread faster because they lived so close together)
- housing, food, health and morale for the industrial workers?
• Life expectancy in Europe was about 17 years old
• Day care - none, people had to take them to work with them
• Workers facial expression lack of hope.
• Food: bad bread and bad potatoes.
• Housing: smaller apartments
• Workers would get scrap wood and build little shacks against brick walls, They also lived in basements
• No plumbing, no running water (pots for using the toilet)
• Plob houses cost 5 cents a night and consisted of an open room where people could stay
• Lacked vitamin D (rickets) - bones weaken and can not hold body weight.
• Rotten food (commercial farmers would sale them food that the middle class didn't buy
- a way out of the poverty cycle? A new kind of hereditary class?
• (England 1830s, Prussia 30 years later)
• Going on strike and organizing unions was illegal
• Making trouble will cause you to get fired.
• Parents and children are stuck in this situation (no hope)
• There was no law that said kids had to do what their parents did but they basically inheredite poverty through their parents.
- New behaviors; crime, prosititution, alcoholism, suicide
• Some women turned to prostitution to provide and keep their children alive.
• Stealing - the factories were producing more than they need so why not take some of the goods from the factory.
• Crime - organized by gangs (thieves who were striking back) • Alcoholism - Gen was cheaper than pure water. Water was usually unsafe to drink. Drinking cause life hurts.• Suicide
Factory we built (class exercise)
• There were no laws governing any of these jobs, safety of work places etc. because it had never happened before.
-choices about location, machinery, buildings, housing, hours, wages
• As long as they had water and coal they could put the machinery anywhere.
• Coal was cheaper near the river,(they needed coal for fuel) therefore machinery was built near the coal.
• However, these areas weren't good for growing crops
• Machinery: they purchased the cheaper machines with exposed moving parts vs closed machinery
• People moved to new areas to work in factories
• Buildings/Housing: rented, small, no windows, not well ventilated, no plumbing or running water
• (they were using less money because this was an investment that weren't sure was going to work. Risking less)
• Hours: (ex: heating up 10,000 gallons of water) did not want the workers to stop for breaks because they didn't want to stop the machines (head of steam) once they got it going. Every 12-16 hours the machines had to be turned off to cool down.
• Wages: could offer low wages because people were desperate to make money so that they could eat and feed their families.
• Overpopulation allowed them to hire people at such low rates
-overall results? Inevitable?
• Was there any other way this could have happened.
• The suffering of the workers was not priority but the investors money
Population explosion and commercialization of agriculture (1800-1900)
• "Enclosures" - It turned small holdings and some commonly held lands into large fenced tracts that were privately owned and individually managed by commercial landlords. The British Parliament encouraged enclosure because it was more productive and yielded more food for growing and increasingly urban population.
• Therefore people had large pieces of lands to try the new technology.
• Thousands of families of peasants now had nowhere to grow their food and nowhere to live.
• The peasants had to find work so that they could buy food.
• Demographic Revolution - Huge growth in population (140 million to 290 million)
• Causes: medical care, food etc.
• If 80% of the population was already in the country sided the growth of the population was also in the country side
• Jobs decreased, people increased, therefore people were starving. People were desperate for work.
-Because of bad harvests, exploitation, being barred from collecting wood in the forests, facing direct competition from factory-produced goods, (less work or lower piece rates and falling incomes for families), commercialized agriculture, and larges landowners possessing over half a million acres, (Before the emancipation of the serfs in the 1860s, landowners claimed the labor of dependent peasant populations for as much as several days a week), peasants were land poor, deep in debt, and precariously dependent on markets.
steel, internal combustion and electricity (Late 1900s)
Electricity and petroleum-based fuels, steel, electricity and chemicals. Liquied-fuel internal combustion engine. Conversion of coal to oil. New Engines that depended on crude petroleum and distilled gasoline and the discovery of oil fields. The efficient production of alkali and sulfuric acid transformed the manufacture of such consumer goods as paper, soaps, textiles, and fertilizer. Industrialist who had previously depended on nearby rivers or coal mines for power were free to take their enterprises to regions bereft of natural resources. The potential for worldwide industrialization was in place.
Friedrich Engels on the Factory System (1844)
The capitalist are reveling in their rewards of their investment and the laborers are cold and hungry. Benefits derived from these improvements are ruthlessly monopolized by a few persons. Every improvement in machinery leads to unemployment, want, distress, crime. Machines-labor supersedes hand-labor and calls for nimble fingers vs muscular, which leads to the employment of women and children who will work for lower wages. This results is the dissolution of family ties, 13 hours work days for both parents leads to lack of parental care and control and children are left to run wild.
-• Where they lived did not bring them into daily contact with the peasants
• Isolated from the suffering
• Didn't look for the problems that this new system was creating
Villas and suburbs and ideas of Dr. Andrew Ure (1835)
• they lived in the country because of the pollution and crime
• Large single family villas at a great distance from the city
• Suburbs were built to the east of the cities because of how the wind blew
• If they weren't wealthy enough to move to the country they lived in townhouses in a neighborhood with people like you (this was also east of the manufactories)
• Traveling salesman who guaranteed products
• 5 course meal soup, fish, meat, desert
• People that were benefiting lives just kept getting better
Dr. Andrew Ure - Every member of the loom is so adjusted that the driving force leaves the attendant nearly nothing to all to do, certainly no muscular fatigue to sustain while it produces for him good, unfailing wages, besides a healthy workshop gratis; whereas the non-factory weaver, having everything to execute by muscular exertion, finds the labor irksome, makes in consequence innumerable short pauses, separately of little account, but great when added together, earns therefore proportionally low wages, while he looses his health by poor diet and the dampness of his hovel.
• Self Help
• Born 1812, Was not born to great wealth, His parents were retailers
• He did not have to work in the factories and he had descent food, shelter and education.
• He took advantage of these things and became very well educated. He went to medical school and became a doctor. Saved money and invested it in things like railroads.
• By the age of 50 he was one of the wealthiest people in England
• He wonders why the people in the city are the way they are.
• He generalized from personal experience of how he thought things were
• Why are the well off well off? Because they work hard. It is force of purpose that gets a man to were he wants to be. Determination, discipline, common sense (he thought this was the key to success, and nothing stood in the way)
-implications for reform of conditions?
• He thought that if you give them stuff then they wouldn't work for it.
• The most government can do is free people to do for themselves. (Government shouldn't intervene.
• He didn't understand that it wasn't possible for them to save money, and that they were already working all the time.
• He failed to understand the root cause of what was going on.
Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations (1776)
• He was studying a society that was still being manufactured by hand (no mills/manufactures yet)
• Mercantilism - They produced everything possible at home and then traded what could not be produces (export more than import)
• He felt restraining the competitions regulations caused more problems.
• Smith felt he had identified natural laws of human life.
• Basic laws of supply and demand - Demand generates supply
• Get human laws out of the way and free up people then the natural laws will give the greatest production of goods, money, wealth growth etc.
• Against Regulations which for example may allows king to allow only one person to produce a product which means the owner can raise the price of the item.
• If we used Smith's idea then anyone who wanted to make a product they could which gave consumers a choice and gave producers competition.
• People competing to make more money ends up giving consumers more of what they want.
• Consumers have to lower prices to stay in competition.
• Against government regulations - human law needs to stay out of the way of natural laws.
• Governments should administer law, protect from invasion and
• Laissez-faire - let nature do it
• Economic growth had been growing so by looking back at the growth they determined that he was right.
• Protecting the society from the violence and invasion of other independent societies, protecting members of society from the injustice or oppression, the duty of erecting and maintaining certain public works and certain public institutions.
• He didn't anticipate that people would use technology to generate more products and put other people out of business which means that the person with the machines would get all the business and create a monopoly.
• Therefore, the market goes down when people are put out of jobs.
Thomas Malthus "On Population" (1798)
• When there are more workers than jobs, people will die until the labor balances off with the jobs.
• If populations increase faster than food then people will starve.
• He felt that poverty was inevitable and that government could do nothing to alleviate poverty. The poor had to exercise "moral restraint" by postponing marriage and having fewer children
• Lives will be shorter due to bad working conditions etc. (population decreases as a result of people dying off)
• Poverty is just nature, it happens, nature is taking it course
• The only solution he had was to convince the poor to stop having so many babies.
• If we give them money to help them survive then they will have more babies and then more people would have to die. So helping them (messing with nature) natural laws)) would make things worse.
-Ideas shifted away from enlightenment optimism about the "perfectibility of society" and broke from the tradition of large populations meaning economic strength. Population grew more than food supply. He felt that poverty was inevitable and that government could do nothing to alleviate poverty. The poor had to exercise "moral restraint" by postponing marriage and having fewer children
• The world is full of death, but some survive (we take from each other, eat others food)
• Who survives the struggle for existence? Some people's random variations suite them better.
• The fittest survive and they past this on to their offspring. (characteristics in animals: being faster, having fur the same color as their environment)
• Nature selects the survivors (Natural Selection)
• Those who survive are continuing to be improved and pass it on to their offspring. The non fittest die off.
• Natural selection and struggle for survival creates evolution. (the gradual change of the earth)
-• Laws: population expand geometrically very quickly (rapid multiplication). Offspring resemble their parents but very slightly (random variation)
Woman Suffrage and "the new woman (late 1800s)
• It was very important, they turned to violence and demanded education and the right to vote
• Because the "Victorian Model" was seen as a secondary citizen who had to answer to her father or husband and could not divorce. The new women demanded education and a job, refused to escorted by chaperones, rejected the restrictive corsets. It was a image, pictures in magazines of women riding bicycles in bloomers.
• Womens independence was attacked as ugly, half-men, and thought of as unfit for marriage. Men scorned those who threatened their elite preserves in universities and clubs and public office.
-Women's colleges were established at the same time that women won the right to control their own property
-Middle-class women's societies rapidly multiplied - German League of Women's Voting Rights (1902)
(1884) Gave Frenchwomen the same right nd the ability to divorce their husbands.
(1860) Swiss universities and medical schools began to admit women
The "New" Liberalism (Liberalism and Socialism) (1906)
• Leave existing system in place (factories under private ownership)
• Give workers the things democratic socialist are promising.
• Winston S. Churchill - tax on income, those who made the most would play the most.
• The money from taxes would get pay for everyone to have education, and descent livings.
-Socialism would educate the people, provide cheap and pure food, extend and elevate the means of study and amusement, foster literature and science and art, encourage and reward genius and industry, demolish slums, compel all men to do some kind of useful work, recreate and nourish craftsmen's pride in his craft, protect women and children, raise the standard health and morality, take the sting out of pauperism by paying pensions to honest workers no longer able to work.
-Nationalize the land and instruments of production to save waste, panics, avert trade depressions, famines, strikes, congestion of industrial centres, prevent greedy and unscrupulous sharpers from enriching themselves at the cost of the national health and prosperity.
-England does not belong to the people but to a few rich men. (the mines, mills ships, shops, canal, railroads, houses, clocks, harbors and machinery are not used for the general good of the people but are used to make wealth for the few rich men who own them.
"Merrie England": (1893)
• Rejects most of Marx ideas such as violent overthrows, revolutionary consciousness (dream world),
• Changes are to be made legally and through the system
• Some kinds of private property (like factories, production) should be under the government but not all.
• Not opposed that some will remain wealthier than others
• Factories, mines, railroads, ships, etc should be owned by the people and managed by elected officials. If this happens owners would be paid for their factories but they could no longer own factories.
• The owners would become managers and be paid salaries.
• The profit of the sales from factories etc. would go into public revenue.
• Money (public revenue) would pay for free education and cheap and pure food. Build buildings, protect women and children
• Things like bonds were in place
• These things would only happen if they got enough people in parliament
Reform Bill of 1867; Trades Union Act of 1877
• The owners offered limited reforms to the workers to prevent the response of violence.
• 1867 - male urban workers got the right to vote
o However they worked many hours and could not afford to run for office
• 1877 - workers could form unions
• It become legal all over Europe to form unions
• Workers form unions faster than they thought, they formed in the single factories and them begin to form larger unions across the board.
• 1884 - 600,000 English factory workers were in unions, by 1914 - 4 million were
• The first changes came through the union and strikes
• Wages got a little better ( a little above subsistence, conditions of work improved)
• There was no need for a violent overtakes of the government.
• Their increased wages allowed them to help those that wanted to run for office.
• Workers political parties, labor parties (Independent Labor Party) - party of workers by workers raising money to get worker candidates into office.
• Progress was slow but it was starting.
• They eventually got 5 or 6 representatives in parliament.
• By 1890s workers in Europe have seen some change in the system and felt their voice was being heard through the union
• Marx invision didn't happen because they didn't see the need for violence after the change. However, they end up using Owen's ideas of providing the workers incentives to make them happier.
Robert Owen "The New Moral Order" (1826-44), and Utopian Socialism
• Made a fortune through industrializing and manufacturing
• was open to enlightened ideas
• he didn't like individual against individual
• he talks about the evil spirit around us (individual competition conquers all)
• ignorance and selfishness causes all this evilness
• He imagines a much better world.
• He thinks the system is terrible
• The world around him was not fully moral
• "religious, moral, political and economic arrangements of society is based on an error respecting human nature.
• Individuals can feel even better than the feeling of wealth
• Industrialization has created enough that everyone can have enough but the laws etc. are keeping everyone from being wealthy
• He feels that there is something about a group that will give us better happiness than individual wealth
• None will be trained to murder or to take advantage of one another.
• Relys on persuasion and sets examples
• New Lanark (took out of his profit)
o Set up day care - exercise and dancing
o Offered education, Better housing, Sanitation
o Better wages and working hours
• Provided benefits to workers
• Wealth divided equal, Peaceful and economic change
• Workers enjoyed the benefits of their labor
• He had less left for himself
• A few followers but not many joined
• Others lowered their prices so he couldn't sell and put him out of business
• He was trying to produce different kinds of individuals, Utopian Socialism
o A place where everything is perfect, Unattainable perfect
o Comes from the word that means "no where"
o Doesn't take into account the realities of life
Ideas of Karl Marx and Engels, (Communist Manifesto, Capital (Mid 1800s)
• 10% of population were owners, own products, own profit
• 90% workers, own no part of product or profit and they get extremely low wages
• How do you treat private property
• This is not inevitable, the workers had no choice if they wanted to eat., there is enough to go around if they would share.
-private property, means of production, class exploitation by government, law, ideas
• Private property = nature rights
• Means of production = factory
• The rest of the society (90%) had no choice but to work for the factory owners (10%).
• This equaled two different classes of people.
• Owners were a minority but because of their wealth and ownership they could exploit the rest of the society.
• One class unfairly benefited from the work of a lower class
• The owners also controlled the government, made laws, command police and military forces.
• They used these forces to maintain control.
• Laws such as: no labor unions, lower class cannot vote
• Government was not there to help the lower class but help the upper class maintain control of everything
• They also controlled the ideas that circulated for example: if you work harder then you will become rich too, This is where God placed them,
-revolutionary consciousness, the social revolution, and the Communist Party (midwife)
• Violence would change things
• Violent revolution was the only thing that would get it done
• He believed that we were born a blank slate and we were affected by our surroundings
• The wealthy would only know people like themselves that were born with the same conditionings such as owning private property, competition and making money off the poor people's labor
• Poor gets more poor but the number of them increase
• The poor will become condition to a way of owning nothing but their kids
• He felt that living with only the support of each other that their minds would begin to change, and the majority would finally realize that the system is set up to keep them poor.
• He believed that they would rise up violently and create a society that everything was shared evenly
• The thought has to come from the heart and minds of the workers themselves
• He described a person that humans have never seen before
• He projected that 98% of society would eventually be reduced to nothing and only 2% would be owners
• People have to be reduced to nothing before this change would occur
• The new type of human would Abolish private property and overthrow everything
• Communist Party
o Could act in the revolution the same way a midwife works in the delivery of a baby
o Midewife does not cause pregnancy and does not determine the date of delivery
o The communist party cannot control the people but must wait until the workers have consciousness of the system in their heart and mind
o The communist party could go out and educate the poor and help them along once they are ready to change and overthrow the wealthy
• Pamphlet issued to workers
• Talked about overthrowing all institutions
• Workers had nothing to lose but their chains
• Over throw system through violence
• There wasn't an enormous response from the workers, but there was a response from some.
• It was illegal and they were risking their lives
• Only a couple percent of them responded to the violent way of overthrowing the system.
• 1870 - a group of communist "Paris Commune" had control of the government buildings for a short period of time
• The owners saw signs that the workers were planning to overtake the government through violence.
Hobson, Imperialism (1902)
need for raw material
need for markups
put up trade barriers against other industrializing countries (made it impossible to sell surplus to other manufacturing countries)
Hobson feels that only certain people are benefiting from industrialism
Influencing political power to go to war to benefit their own economic benefit
The large manufactures were eager to be able to sell their goods to the new areas because they were making more than they could sell at home.
The majority of the people in the city were workers so they couldn't afford to buy any of the manufactured goods, therefore manufacturers couldn't sell a lot in their own city.
Hobson felt that Social reform would fix this - if the entire working population was paid a descent wage then most of them would buy the goods and there would not be a need to export more goods
He didn't think that it was a good idea to conquer all these countries just to sell more goods because doing so would not convince the owners to change and pay their workers more money so that they could buy goods. If they had no one to sell to the he felt that the owners would eventually change because they would have no one to sell to.
Churchill, Battle of Omdurman (1898)
single shot =4 shots every minute
Western nation- British and Americans were the first to have repeating rifle
Maxim - designed a gun that worked like machinery 200 shots per minute and then 400 shots per minute
Ironclad ships - replaced wind powered ship. Wood ships could easily catch fire so they built ships out of metal.
They could do astonishing damage
Technology allowed so few to conquer so many
Others had technology but had not applied it to war weapons
The White Man's Burden (Rudyard Kipling) (1899)
Wrote the Jungle Book
Spent a lot of time in the Asian empire
Should they extract things like pineapples from the Philippines or go in and change their culture.
Felt that they should go out there cause they need us, it's the White Man's Burden
Suggest that others are inferior and that it wasn't their fault because no one had told them that they were inferior.
Believed that they were half devil because they weren't Christian
Felt that they were trying to help and the others should welcome them in
Felt that they were lazy, and were not smart enough to realize that they needed help.
Referred to them as children who needed to be shown the right way.
Kipling felt that if they worked hard enough they could change
Kipling knew that they would fight back.
Referred to Western civilization as the light. (knowledge)
Who wouldn't want to come to the light?
Felt the rest of the world was in darkness.
The rest of the world is attached to their culture. (Although he could see this he couldn't view his own culture as just another culture he saw his own as superior to others)
Felt that he couldn't leave the Philippines to themselves and that we should take them and Christianize them. (thinks he is doing a good thing)
They needed and wanted the resources but also felt that it was their job to help them by conquering them and educating them.
British imperial policy in India (1890s)
Years of cultures
History of serving Gods
Lots of Gods, women gods, men gods, some gods were both, Worshiping idols, Elephant heads, They weren't Christian, These things seemed not just different but wrong
Attire - not fully clothed, wearing wraps (seemed uncivilized to the western civilization), Their ceremonies seem wild
The thousand years of culture in india is not worth one book in European library.
Science and modern technology was extremely important to the Europeans
The Europeans saw nothing they had in common with them
Lots of cotton grew in India
India Population 150 million
About 50 million of them had disposable income (England saw this as a chance to sell) economic motives
Felt that India needed them to bring them up to speed as far as technology
b. -conquest and artificial centralization of government and policy
Policies served economic goal and the goal of bringing the true civilization.
The people of india were already fighting against each other which made conquering them easier
It only took 40 years to take all of them over
As they conquered each region they abolished the right to have an army
They felt that they brought peace
Colony of India was created and kept the making of policy and law in the hands of the Europeans
Unification of India was forced upon them. It was something that India never wanted. -They put their interest first and did not honor cultures and traditions.
Maximize cotton production and opium production
Opium - to facilitate trade in china. (China had opium addiction.)
Everyone had to communicate in English (felt that their language was superior.- British law was the law for India
Felt they brought civilized law to and language to india
If they didn't learn English law and language they risk breaking the law because they couldn't read
Offered local leaders the job of carrying out policies.
If they refused to learn English and behave like the English they were completely left out.- Low cost administration -
Science and National Life (Pearson)
Should we be conquering the rest of the world and why?
Talks about quality of mind being inherited.
Their capabilities are inherited
Refers to the rest of the world as bad stock
Felt that they could modify the percentage of bad stock
He didn't feel that the rest of the world used their goods to the extent because they didn't have factories
Europeans should drive out the infernal race
They felt that conquering these people would make the world better
They didn't think that others were capable of becoming what the they were
They felt that this was science
Their ultimate goal was to eliminate some and enslave some
Governor Aycock's speech (1903)
disfranchise him; after that let him alone, quit writing about him, quit making him "the white's man burden," let him "tote his own skillet"; quit coddling him, let him learn that no man, no race, ever got anything worth the having that he did not himself earn ; that character is the outcome of sacrifice
Let the negro learn once for all that there is unending separation of the races ... that they cannot intermingle; let the white man determine that no man shall by act or thought or speech cross this line, and the race problem will be at an end.
He constitutes one third of the population of my State: he has always been my personal friend; as a lawyer I have often defended him, and as Governor I have frequently protected him. But there flows in my veins the blood of the dominant race that has conquered the earth and seeks out the mysteries of its heights and deaths. If manifest destiny leads to the seizure of Panama, it is certain that it likewise leads to the dominance of the Caucasian. When the negro recognizes this fact we shall have peace and good will between races.
-Their race is dominant and they are doing the negros a favor by helping them to become civilized. If Negros realize that they will never be dominant and stay in their place we will have piece. Social Darwinism They didn't think that Negros were capable of being their equal
Opium Wars and concession of "spheres of influence" (1870-1900)
Maximize cotton production and opium production
Opium - to facilitate trade in china. (China had opium addiction.)
-• India was Britain's largest export market. One tenth of all the British Empire's trade passed through india's port cities of Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta.
• Surpluses earned there compensated for deficits with Europe and the U.S.
• Indian laborers work on tea l\plantation in Assam, near Burma and they built railways and dams in southern Africa and Egypt
• Provided British Empire with highly trained engineers, land surveyors, clerks, bureaucrats, school-teachers and merchants.
- Everyone had to communicate in English (felt that their language was superior.
British law was the law for India
Felt they brought civilized law to and language to india
If they didn't learn English law and language they risk breaking the law because they couldn't read
Offered local leaders the job of carrying out policies.
If they refused to learn English and behave like the English they were completely left out.
Low cost administration -
-• the majority of Indians remain desperately poor peasants struggling to subsist on diminishing plots of land , in many cases, in debt to British landlords. Meanwhile villagers working in the textile trade were beaten down by imports of cheap manufactured goods from England.
Trevelyan Response (Feb. 1846)
Trevelyn believed that it was important to teach people to depend upon themselves for reproducing resources instead of collecting resources from the government. This con insides with Smiles belief that if you gave the poor their resources then they would not work for it. It also coinsides with Malthus belief that there was nothing the government could do and Smith's idea that the government should not be involved that it should only Protectsociety from the violence and invasion of other independent societies, protect members of society from the injustice or oppression, the duty of erecting and maintaining certain public works and certain public institutions
Trevelyn also believed that the condition of the community depends on the efforts that its members make in their private and individual capacity. This conincides with Smiles "self help", success came via hard work.
Trevelyn also believed that famine will correct social evils including families having too many children and farmers failing to plant the right crop. This conincides with Malthus belief of his discovery of natural laws, that poverty is just nature, nature taking its course, poverty is inevitable. The poor needed to used moral restriants by having fewer kids.