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88 terms

Nutrition chapter 7

STUDY
PLAY
heat energy
type of energy that maintains a constant body temperature
mechanical energy
type of energy that moves muscles
electrical energy
type of energy that sends nerve impulses
chemical energy
what type of energy is stored in foods and the body
metabolism
when the body releases of energy (ATP), water, and carbon dioxide is called
photosynthesis
type of energy metabolism when plants use the sun's energy to make carbohydrates form carbon dioxide and water. this is called
c) fuel
humans and animals eat the plants and use the carbohydrate as________for their bodies:
a) energy
b) chemical process
c) fuel
d) metabolism
proteins
During digestion, the energy yielding nutrients are broken down to except:
a) monosaccharides
b)proteins
c)fatty acids
d) glyceron
e) amino acids
a)ATP
what is the major carrier molecule in most cells:
a) ATP
b)glucose
c) Pyruvate
d) A kcalorie
d) inside the cell and liver cells
where the metabolic reaction takes place and in what organ:
a) outside the cell and small intestine cells
b) in the mitocondria and stomach cells
d) inside the cell and liver cells
anabolism
type of chemical reaction in the body that building up of body compunds and requires energy
catabolism
type of chemical reaction that breakdown of body compounds and releases energy
a) involve release of energy
a feature of catabolic reactions is that they:
a) involve release of energy
b) occur only in mitochondria
c) involve consumption of energy
d) occur only during loss of body weight
involves requirement of energy
a feature of anabolic reaction is that they:
a) involves requirement of energy
b) occur only in mitochondria
c) involve consumption of energy
d) occur only during loss of body weight
mitochondria
A typical cell contains powerhouses, which is another name for the:
glycogen. anabolic reaction
the sum of glucose + glucose is = to _____, and what type of reaction: anabolic or catabolic
tryglycerides. anabolic
the sum of Glycerol + fatty acids is = to_____, and what type of reaction: anabolic or catabolic
protein. anabolic
the sum of amino acids + amino acids= to_______, and what type of reaction: anabolic or catabolic
glucose. catabolic
the break down of glycogen is ______ and what type of reaction: anabolic or catabolic
glycerol ------>fatty acids. catabolism
the break down of tryglycerides is ________---->______, and what type of reaction: anabolic or catabolic
amino acids. catabolism
the break down of protein is _________ and what type of reaction: anabolic or catabolic
adenosine triphosphate
name of ATP
ATP
this is a type of energy compoun that captures the energy released during metabolism:
a) A Kcalorie
b)glucose
c) Pyruvate
d) ATP
coupled reactions
are chemical reaction that occur simultaneously:
energy is release when the high energy phophate bond in ATP is broke
when energy is release by ATP?
a) when a phophate group is attached to ADP, making ATP
b) when the high energy phophate bond in ATP is broke
c) ADP releases a phophate group and becomes ATP
energy is required when a phophate group is attached to ADP, making ATP
when energy is required by ATP?
a) ADP releases a phophate group and becomes ATP
b) when the high energy phophate bond in ATP is broke
c) when a phophate group is attached to ADP, making ATP
c) ATP releases a phosphate group and becomes ADP
which of the following metabolic reactions occurs when a cell uses energy:
a) ATP gains a phosphate group and becomes ADP
b) ADP gains a phosphate foup and becomes ATP
c) ATP releases a phosphate group and becomes ADP
d) ADP releases a phophate group and becomes ATP
coenzymes
complex organic molecules that work with enzymes to facilitate the enzymes activity.
b) are protein catalysts that cause chemical reactions
is NOT a feature of coenzymes:
a) organic molecules that functions as enzyme helpers
b) are protein catalysts that cause chemical reactions
c) without coenzymes, an enzyme cannot function
enzymes
protein catalyts that cause chemical reactions: enzymes or coenzymes
b) pyruvate
A three-carbon compound reversible convertible to glucose is:
a) an amino acid
b) pyruvate
c) acetyl CoA
d) a fatty acid
e) glucose
c) acetyl CoA
a two-carbon compound that cannot be used to make glucose:
a) an amino acid
b) pyruvate
c) acetyl CoA
d) a fatty acid
e) glucose
fat
the parts that are converted to acetyl CoA cannot provide glucose but can readily provide_________
a) pyruvate
b) an amino acid
c) Fat
d) a fatty acid
e) acetyl CoA
c) glucose, pyruvate, lactid acid, acetyl acid, acetyl CoA, TCA cycle, electron transport chain.
which of the following outlines is the overall sequence of events in the TCA cycle and electron transport chain
a) Electron transport chain, TCA cycle, electron transport, acetyl CoA, lactid acid, pyruvate.
b) glucose, TCA cycle,acetyl CoA, electron transport, lactid acid, pyruvate.
c) glucose, pyruvate, lactid acid, acetyl acid, acetyl CoA, TCA cycle, electron transport chain.
d) Electron transport chain, acetyl CoA, lactid acid, pyruvate, glucose.
glycolysis
name of the metabolic breakdown of glucose to pyruvate
a) it is irreversible
which of the following is not an aspect of glycolysis:
a) it is irreversible
b) it generates ATP
c) it occurs in the absence of oxygen
d) it generates two molecules of pyruvate for each molecule of glucose
a) anarobic pathway
pyruvate is conveted to lactate in:
a) anarobic pathway
b) an aerobic pathway
c) pyruvate oxidation
d) glycolysis
c) lactate
during the breaking down of nutrients for quick energy in the body, pyruvate is converted to:
a) glucose
b) citric acid
c) lactate
d) fatty acids
anaerobic
when your are runing a quarter of mile as fast as you can the breakdown of glucose to pyruvate to lactate proceeds:
anaerobic or aerobic pathways
anaerobic
quick energy needs:
anaerobic or aerobic pathways
aerobic
slower energy needs:
anaerobic or aerobic pathways
b)
during the breaking down of nutrients for slow energy in the body, pyruvate is converted to:
a) glucose
b) acetyl CoA
c) lactate
d) fatty acids
d)
when a person is jogging around the track for an hour the pyruvate is converted to:
a) glucose
b) citric acid
c) lactate
d) acetyl CoA
relaxation
is a person exercise for many hours and become really tired (because of the accumulation of lactate in muscles), which one is NOT a type of physical effects could present:
a) drop of pH
b) relaxation
c) fatigue
d) burning pain
Cori
The process of converting lactate from the muscles to glucose in the liver that can be returned to the muscles is know as:
a) TCA
b) Cori
c) glycolysis
1. 6
2. 3
3. 16-18
4. 2,3 or more
5. 3
6. 2
how many carbons is in each of these compounds:
1. glucose
2. glycerol
3. fatty acids
4. amino acids
5. pyruvate
6. acetyl CoA
carbon dioxide. acetyl CoA. irreversible
in activities with slow energy requirements pyruvates converts to acetyl CoA. Pyruvate enter to the mitrochondria of cell, and carbon becoming________. then 2 carbon compounds joins with CoA becoming________. is this process reversible or irreversible.
glucogenic
animo acids that can be used to make glucose are called
ketogenic
animo acid that are converted to acetyl CoA are called
b
which is not a function of Acetyl CoA
a) synthesize fats when the body has enough ATP
b) convert hydrogen and electrons to glucose
c) generate ATP through TCA cycle, when cell is low in energy
amonia
which of the following products is not generated via the TCA cycle or electron transport chain:
a) water
b) energy
c) amonia
d) carbon dioxide
oxigen
an aerobic reaction is one that requires:
a) alcohol
b) oxigen
c) nitrogen
d) amonia
c)
what type of diet is associated with the developtment of ketosis:
a) low fat
b) low protein
c) low carbohydrate
d) high carbohydrate
an anerobic pathway
pyruvate is converted to lactate in:
a) an anaerobic pathway
b) an aerobic pathway
c) pyruvate oxidation
d) glycolysis
b
an immediate consequence of a cellular deficiency of oxaloacetate is a slowing of:
a) glycolysis
b) the TCA cycle
c) lactate synthesis
d) ketone formation
b
which of the following outlines the overall sequence of events in the complete oxidation of glucose:
a) cori cycle, TCA cycle, glycolysis
b) Glycolysis, TCA cycle, elctron transport chain
c) electron transport chain, TCA cycle, Cori Cycle
d) TCA cycle, electron transport chain, glycolysis
d
Lillie has been losing weight by following a very low carbohydrate diet for 2 months. Her primary care physician just diagnosed ketosis through a urine sample. which of the following symptoms would be another way the physician might have suspected ketosis in Lillie?
a) thinning hair
b) irritable temper
c) fishy body odor
d) fruity odor on breath
a
pyruvate is converted to lactate in:
a) an anaerobicc pathway
b) an aerobic pathway
c) pyruvate oxidation
d) glycoysis
d
psychological effects of food deprivation include:
a) muscle wasting, slow heart rate, and depression
b) significant loss of body fat, loss of water, and anxiety
c) significant loss of body weight, hunger, and elation.
d) depression, anxiety, and food related dreams
c
one starch exchange is______grams of carbohydrate:
a) 5 grams
b) 12 grams
c) 15 grams
d) 20 grams
b
one milk exchange is_____grams of carbohydrate:
a) 5 grams
b) 12 grams
c) 15 grams
d) 20 grams
a
one nonstarchy vegetable exchange is_____grams of carbohydrate.
a) 5 grams
b) 12 grams
c) 15 grams
d) 20 grams
d
when is breaking down nutrients for energy, glycerol is converted to :
a) proteins
b) fats
c) triglycerides
d) pyruvate
b
how many carbons has glycerol.
a)2
b)3
c)6
glucose and pyruvate
*****name of the other 3 carbon compounds that glyceron can be converted.
a
during the breaking down of nutrients for energy fatty acis are converted to:
a) acetyl CoA
b) glucose
c) triglycerides
d) proteins
fatty acid oxidation
name of the metabolic breakdown of fatty acids to acetyl CoA.
F
can be used fatty acid to synthesize glucose: T of F
c
how is called when glucose is making form noncarbohydrate sources?
a) glucose oxidation
b) TCA
c) gluconeogenesis
liver
what organ is the major site of gluconeogenesis:
a) small intestine
b) stomach
c) liver
d) gallbladder
a
site where TCA cycle occurs:
a) mitochondria
b) inside the cell
c) transport chain
d) cell nucleous
c
if a diet provided an ample carbohydrate amounts, ensures an adequate supply of:
a) fat
b) proteins
c) oxaloacetate
d) lipids
9, 4, 4.
how many kcalories per gram are there in fat, carbohydrates and proteins.
c
what type of compound produce more energy:
a) carbohydrates
b) proteins
c) fat
d) amino acids
ATP synthesis
name of the process or cycle where hydrogen ions flow downhill from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration through a special protein complex.
a) electron transport chain
b) ATP synthesis
c) TCA cycle
d) cori clycle
a) electron trnasport chain
name of the process where electrons are passing from carrie to carrie along the chain releases enough energy to pump hydrogen ions across the membrane.
a) electron transport chain
b) ATP synthesis
c) TCA cycle
d) cori clycle
feasting
when a person overeats is called:
fasting
when a person drawn on stores is called.
from liver that converts fats to ketone bodies, which serve as an alternative energy source for the bain.
when a person has not eatean for 24 hours (starvation), how the bain receive energy.
glycogen, fat.
when a person eats in excess of enegrgy needs, the body stores a small amount of________ and much larger quantities of_________.
glycogen, fat.
about 2 to 3 hours after a meal, when nutrients from a meal aare no longer available to provide energy, the body wraws on its________and________ stores for energy.
glucose
important substance that is needed for the good fuction of brain and nerve cells
ketosis
what happen when the brain becomes fueled by ketone bodies (name of the shift process)
ketones
what the body produce when the glucose is not availabe.
supress
the ketosis produce more appetite or supress appetite.
c
which one is not a sympton of starvation:
a) muscle wasting
b) decrease heart rate, respiratory rate, metabolic rate and body temperature
c) relaxation
d) impaired vision
e) organ failure
f) decreased immunity
g) depression, anxietey and food related dreams.
weight
when the body is in ketosis process, the body is losing fat, or weight
a urine test which is looks for ketone formation from glycogen depletion
if an adolescent is losing a lot of weight, but she said that is eating and she does not know why is lossing weight which will be a good method to know if she is saying the truth.