Phys Sys Quiz 4 N7 & N8

_________ are the cells that do the bulk of what we consider to be brain functions. They are connected to each other to create circuits that perform the brain functions. Thoughts, ideas, decisions, etc. are results of electrical activity in these circuits.
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There is a motor cortex analogous to the sensory cortex which is the "jumping off place" for currents that control motor activities (i.e., that control your skeletal muscles). Where is it located?It's located at the rear of the frontal lobe, adjacent to the somatic cortex.Each sense (except _________) has a "center" in the brain Most are in the _______- (olfaction, vision, taste (gustatory), somatic, hearing) Balance connects to the ________. Most are routed through the ______ (the brain's internal communication center).pain; cerebral cortex; cerebellum; thalamusThe cerebral cortex also has "association areas" which _______ They then coordinate _______ and get them ready to be sent to muscles.process the current inputs and assign meaning.; outputsHow association areas perform in simple tasksScenario: Subj must speak what was read/heard 1. Wernicke's area assigns meaning to written/audio 2. Broca's area then maps the meaning to mechanics (muscle mvmts) required to speak the word 3. mechanics (in form of currents) are passed to motor cortex which recruits the muscle to be used and sends the output to the cerebellum then sends to mouth for speakingThere are also higher order association areas that carry out complex mental processes that _______. Each sensory and motor association areas sends signals to higher order association areas, which combine this information to form the basis of the highest mental processes.combine inputs from multiple lower order areas and perform functions not associated with any particular senseHuman characteristics not shared by most other mammals: (3)- Number of neurons in the cerebral cortex. - Number of synapses in the cerebral cortex. - Percentage of the cerebral cortex devoted to association areas.How many layers are in the cerebral cortex6individual neurons in the cerebral cortex may have ______ to ________ synapses (i.e., connections to other neurons).1000 to 10,000The EEG measures the activity of large numbers (populations) of neurons.. These recordings are noninvasive, painless, do not interfere much with a human subject's ability to move or perceive stimuli, are relatively low-cost. Electrodes measure voltage-differences at the scalp in the microvolt range. Voltage-traces are recorded with millisecond resolution - (fMRI and PET don't respond as quickly).EEGa visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given taskPET scanAn _________ is based on radio waves produced when a strong magnetic field polarizes H atoms, measuring and localizing the radio wave production. Different tissue types have different concentrations of water, it is possible to create images of internal structures based on radio wave production and position.MRIAn _______is based on radio waves produced from magnetic fields, specifically looking at hemoglobin (iron components). Maps function (metabolic activity)fMRIBrain activity when learning something new vs once masteredmore activity in frontal lobe when learning something new than when masteredFor activities that always require thought and concentration, how does the brain of an amatuer compare with that of a professional?The professional has more define neural circuits for that areaGlial cells make up _______% of the brain's cells.90%Three types of glial cellsastrocytes (most important), oligodendrocytes, microgliaGlial cells nourish and protect neurons. They appear to be able to ________. They alter their functions to respond to brain injury.create and deactivate synapsesGlial cells can _______ to open capillary beds to increase circulation of blood when neurons in a particular area become active .This is why we can use fMRI imaging to follow brain activitysignal precapillary sphinctersGlial cells are not able to depolarize/repolarize (so they cannot conduct electrical currents), but they can release ________.So they may be able to _____ or ______ intracellular currents in neurons.NTS; (e.g., glutamate); initiate or inhibitThe cytosols of adjacent glial cells are directly connected with each other via "_________" through which they can pass various metabolites.It is through these junctions that _______ evacuate to the capillaries the excess extracellular potassium generated by intense neuronal activitiygap junctions; astrocytesThe network of intercommunicating astrocytes behaves like a single inter-connected entity. The astrocytic extensions surrounding the synapses might thus exert a broader control over the concentration of ions and the volume of water in the ________."The network of astrocytes may constitute a non-synaptic transmission system superimposed on the neuronal system to play a major role in modulating neuronal activities."synaptic gaps

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