Apologia Exploring Creation with Chemistry 2nd Edition Module 3
Terms in this set (38)
Continuous theory of matter
The concept that substances were composed of long, unbroken blobs of matter.
Discontinuous theory of matter
The concept that, instead of beeing continous, matter is in fact, composed of tiny, individual particles.
What is "The Law of mass Conservation"?
Matter cannot be created or destroyed.
What is decomposition?
Substances that can undergo a change in such a way to make many other substances, less massive than the original. A.K.A. ( the breaking down a substance until it cannot be broken down anymore.)
What is an element?
Any substance that CANNOT be decomposed into less massive substances.
What is the Periodic Table of Elements?
A collection of the most important info. concerning each element into a table; there are currently 112 elements.
What are the elements called on the left of the bold jagged line?
They are METALS.
Elements that are metals are...?
1. malleable(easily bend)
2. have luster(shiny)
3. are able to conduct electricity.
What are the elements called that are on the right of the bold jagged line?
They are NONMETALS.
Elements that are nonmetals are...?
1. typically brittle(break easily)
2. lack luster(not shiny)
3. Don't conduct electricity.
Is Hydrogen a metal?
NO!! hydrogen is the exception. It is always considered a nonmetal, even though it is on the left.
What are metalloids?
A class of elements that have some metal and some nonmetal. They are an exception as well.
What are compounds?
Substances that CAN be decomposed into elements by chemical means.
What are the two forms that matter comes in?
Elements and Compounds.
What is "The Law of Definite Propositions?"
The proposition of elements in any compound is always the same.
What is an example equation for "The Law of Definite Propositions?"
Amount used= Starting amount -Amount left over.
What are "dimensionless quantities"?
Equations that result in the units canceling out.
What is "The Law of Multiple Proportions"?
If two elements combine to form different compounds, the ratio of masses of the second element that react with a fixed mass of the first will be a simple, whole-number ratio.
What was Dalton`s Atomic Theory?
The Law of Definite Proporitons and The Law of Mass Concervation combined, which also contained 4 vital assumptions.
All elements are composed of small, indivisible particles called "atoms".
All atoms of the same element have exactly the same properties.
Atoms of different elements have different properties.
4th Assumption: A.K.A : The Law of multiple Proportions
Compounds are formed when atoms are joined together. Since atoms are indivisible, they can only join together in simple, whole-number ratios.
What are isotopes?
certain atoms within an element that can be heavirer than other atoms within the same element.
What assumptions contain mistakes?
The 1st two assumptions contain mistakes in them.
What are Molecules?
groups of atoms that form compounds.
All elements ....
....are composed of Identical atoms.
....are composed of identical molecules.
What is a chemical symbol and chemical formula?
A chemical symbol is the abbre. for atoms and a chemical formula is the abbre. for moecules.
What is disstilled water?
Water without ionic compounds dissolved in it.
How can you experimently see if a compound is ionic or covalent?
dissolve the substance into disstilled water and see if it conducts electricity or not.
How can you tell is a compound is ionic or covalent by looking at the chemical formula?
1. If a compound contains at least one metal atom and at least on nonmatla atom, the compound is ionic.
2. If a compound is made up of solely nonmetal atoms, the compound is covalent.
How do you name a ionic compound?
1. Start with the name of the first atom in the molecule.
2.Take the next atom in the molecule and replace its ending with "ide" suffix.
3. Putting those two names together gives you the compound`s name.
How do you name a covalent compound?
Same as naming the ionic, but also prefixes are put in before each name to indicate how many of each type of atom the are inthe molecule.
When do we NOT use the prefix "mono"?
It is not used ONLY on the first atom in the molecule.
Matter comes in little packages known as....?
When Identical atoms join together, the substance that results is called an....?
When atoms join together, they make....?
When molecules are collected together, they form substances called....?
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