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What are the three forms that serum calcium can take?
Protein Bound Calcium
What is the formula to determine calcium levels in the presence of abnormal albumin levels?
Adjusted Ca = Calcium - Albumin + 3.5
How does the normal serum levels of young animals compare with adults?
younger animals have higher normal serum calcium
What are three types of hyperparathyroidism?
Renal Secondary Hyperparathyroidism
Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism
What are the two main mechanisms for hypercalcemia by malignancy?
bone lysis (via tumor produced cytokines)
What are the differential diagnosis for hypercalcmia? (7)
Diffuse bone disease
What are the three mechanisms of hypercalcemia secondary to renal failure?
Decreased renal calcium excretion
Increased responsiveness to Vitamin D
Autonomous parathyroid gland secretion
What are the causes of Primary Hyperparathyroidism?
How do you diagnose primary hyperparathyroidism?
High or normal PTH with hypercalcemia
Ultrasound of the neck
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