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28 terms

Pharm Sci Exam 2: Packet 2

STUDY
PLAY
Distribution
The reversible transfer of drug between various body fluids/tissues
Vascular Fluids
1. Three types
2. Drug mostly in which type?
1. blood, plasma, serum
2. plasma
Cardiac output:
1. Definition
2. Equation
1. volume of blood pumped by heart per minute
2. heart rate x stroke volume
Cardiac output:
1. average bpm
2. average stroke volume
1. 80bpm
2. 60-80 mL
Total blood volume in an adult
~5 mL
Molecules involved with passive transcellular distribution (3)
1. macromolecules
2. polar/hydrophilic drugs
3. lipophilic drugs
Other processes of distribution (2)
1. carrier mediated transport
2. transcytosis
Distribution to Special Tissue: Kidney
1. Capillaries are ________
2. fast/slow distribution out of capillaries?
1. finestrated (large window-like junctions)
2. fast
Distribution to Special Tissue: Liver
1. capillaries are called..
2. what kind of molecules can enter?
1. sinusoids
2. large
Distribution to Special Tissue: Brain
1. ONLY what kind of transport?
2. additional barriers (2)
1. transcellular
2. pericytes and astrocytes
With transcellular transport, molecules must be ____-philic and ionized/unionized?
lipophilic and unionized
Regions of Distribution in 70kg Adult:
1. Total Body Water = __L
2. Intracellular Water = __L
3. Extracellular Water = __L
1. 40 L
2. 28 L
3. 12 L
Regions of Distribution in 70kg Adult:
1. Interstitial fluid: __L
2. Plasma: __L
3. Blood (plasma + cells): __L
1. 9 L
2. 3 L
3. 5 L
Rate of distribution depends on ____ rate of tissues
Perfusion rate
Well-perfused tissues/fast distribution (examples: 4)
1. kidneys
2. heart
3. brain
4. liver
Less perfused, slower distribution (examples: 2)
1. skin
2. muscle
Poorly perfused/very slow distribution (examples: 3)
1. fat tissue
2. connective tissue
3. bone
Volume of Distribution (Vd)
A measure of the extent of drug distribution in body fluids (how much, not how fast)
Between small lipophilic, small polar, and macromolecules, which has the highest Vd? Lowest Vd?
Highest Vd: small lipophilic
Lowest Vd: macromolecule
Low Vd = ______ plasma concentration
high plasma concentration
Macromolecular Drugs:
1. Two examples
2. Calculated Vd is the volume of..
3. Vd value
1. Heparin and asparaginase
2. Plasma
2. ~3L
Polar Small Molecules:
1. Example
2. Calculated Vd is the volume of..
3. Vd value
1. Mannitol
2. Extracellular fluid
3. ~12L
Small Lipophilic Molecules:
1. Calculated Vd is the volume of..
2. Vd value
1. Total body water
2. ~40L
Ionization and Vd: 100% ionized in interstitial fluid:
1. what happens?
2. Vd =
1. Drug can't enter cells
2. ~12L
Ionization and Vd: partially ionized in ISF:
1. what happens?
2. Vd
1. able to enter cells
2. ~40L
Drug binding to plasma proteins can only move into the interstitial fluid if it is..
unbound/free
Plasma protein-binding keeps drug in..
plasma
After an IV dose, is apparent Vd high/low?
Low