A bone is covered externally with a sheath called ______, whereas the internal surface is lined with _________.
periosteum ; endosteum
______ provides hardness to bones, whereas ______ provides some degree of flexibility.
hydroxyapatite and other minerals; proteins
_____ have a ruffled border with many deep infoldings of the plasma membrane, whereas _______ have long,thin,fingerlike cytoplasmic processes.
What would you find in the marrow cavity of the diaphysis of an adult humerus (arm bone)?
yellow bone marrow
In endochondral ossification, the precursor connective tissue is _______, which is replaced by bone
The _____ is a marginal zone of the epiphyseal plate where, in children and adolescents, bone can be seen replacing the hyaline cartilage.
Achondroplastic dwarfism is a hereditary condition in which the long bones of the limbs fail to elongate normally because of reduced hyperplasia and hypertrophy of cartilage in the
A growing long bone in a child has only two areas of cartilage at the epiphysis. These two areas are
articular cartilage and epiphyseal plate
Which of the following exemplifies a positive feedback process happening in bone mineral deposition
The first few crystals to form attract more calcium and phosphate
_____ is synthesized by the combined action of the skin, kidneys, and liver, and is important to the deposition of bone
Blood Ca 2+ deficiency stimulates _____ secretion, which leads to ______
parathyroid hormone; increased osteoclast activity
Arteriosclerosis is one example of etopic ossification, which means
abnormal calcification of a tissue
If a thyroid tumor secreted an excessive amount of calcitonin, we would expect
an elevated level of osteoblast activity
Osteoporosis is most common in elderly women because of the lack of ______, which would otherwise inhibit _______
estrogen; osteoclast activity
A fracture in which the bone is broken into three or more pieces is called a _______ fracture.
The result of calcium and phosphate levels in blood too low for normal deposition is the softness of the bones called ______ in children and _______ in adults.
Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in the healing of a bone fracture
hematoma formation, soft callus formation, hard callus formation, bone remodeling
Patches of fibrocartilage formed in the healing of a fracture are called _____, whereas the bony collar formed around the fracture is called ______.
soft callus, hard callus