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45 terms

Chapter 7 A& P 1

STUDY
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The skeleton does not
store red blood cells
Osseous tissue is a _____ tissue
connective
These are all tissues that are part of a long bone except
transitional epithelium
The expanded head at each end of a long bone is called
an epiphysis
A bone is covered externally with a sheath called ______, whereas the internal surface is lined with _________.
periosteum ; endosteum
_______ are bone-forming cells
Osteoblasts
When ______ become enclosed in lacunae, they become cells called ________
osteoblast; osteocytes
Which of these is an inorganic component of the bone matrix?
hydroxyapatite
Spicules and trabeculae are found in
spongy bone
Red bone marrow does not contain
yellow bone marrow
______ provides hardness to bones, whereas ______ provides some degree of flexibility.
hydroxyapatite and other minerals; proteins
_____ have a ruffled border with many deep infoldings of the plasma membrane, whereas _______ have long,thin,fingerlike cytoplasmic processes.
Osteoclasts; osteocytes
What would you find in the marrow cavity of the diaphysis of an adult humerus (arm bone)?
yellow bone marrow
Which one of the following bone cells would have the greatest number of lysosomes?
osteoclasts
_____ are common in compact bone but rarely seen in spongy bone
central canals
Intramembranous ossification produces the
flat bones of the skull
In endochondral ossification, the precursor connective tissue is _______, which is replaced by bone
hyaline cartilage
The _____ is a marginal zone of the epiphyseal plate where, in children and adolescents, bone can be seen replacing the hyaline cartilage.
metaphysis
Achondroplastic dwarfism is a hereditary condition in which the long bones of the limbs fail to elongate normally because of reduced hyperplasia and hypertrophy of cartilage in the
epiphyseal plate
Chondrocytes multiply in this zone of the metaphysis
zone of cell proliferation
Mature bones are remodeled throughout life by employing
appositional growth
Bone elongation is the result of
cartilage growth
Wolff's law of bone explains the effect of
mechanical stress on bone remodeling
A growing long bone in a child has only two areas of cartilage at the epiphysis. These two areas are
articular cartilage and epiphyseal plate
______ is the process of dissolving bone and returning it's minerals to the blood stream
resorption
Which of the following exemplifies a positive feedback process happening in bone mineral deposition
The first few crystals to form attract more calcium and phosphate
Phosphate is necessary for all of the following except
amino acids
Calcium plays an essential role in all of the following except
DNA synthesis
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) does not
lower blood calcium
_____ is synthesized by the combined action of the skin, kidneys, and liver, and is important to the deposition of bone
Calcitrol
Which of these is not an effect of calcitrol
cartilage growth in the epiphyseal plate
_____ does not put women at risk of hypocalcemia
removal of the thyroid glands
Blood Ca 2+ deficiency stimulates _____ secretion, which leads to ______
parathyroid hormone; increased osteoclast activity
Hypocalcemia can cause
spasms
Arteriosclerosis is one example of etopic ossification, which means
abnormal calcification of a tissue
If a thyroid tumor secreted an excessive amount of calcitonin, we would expect
an elevated level of osteoblast activity
A soft callus forms during
the healing of a fracture
Osteoporosis is most common in elderly women because of the lack of ______, which would otherwise inhibit _______
estrogen; osteoclast activity
A fracture in which the bone is broken into three or more pieces is called a _______ fracture.
comminuted
The result of calcium and phosphate levels in blood too low for normal deposition is the softness of the bones called ______ in children and _______ in adults.
rickets; osteomalacia
Bone protrudes through skin in a fracture called
open
A pathologic fracture
is a break in a bone weakened by some other disease
Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in the healing of a bone fracture
hematoma formation, soft callus formation, hard callus formation, bone remodeling
Patches of fibrocartilage formed in the healing of a fracture are called _____, whereas the bony collar formed around the fracture is called ______.
soft callus, hard callus
_____ affects more people than any other bone disease.
Osteoporosis