17 terms

Winds

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Wind
is the movement of air caused by differences in air pressure
Air moves from areas of High Pressure (H) to areas of Low Pressure (L)
Air Pressure Differences
caused by the unequal heating of the Earth.
Earth is tilted on its axis and the equator receives more direct solar energy from the sun
Low Pressure Area (L)
Warm less dense air rising
High Pressure Area (H)
Cool more dense air sinking
Sea Breeze
Land heats up faster than water.
Hot air over the land rises (Low Pressure), cool air over the water (High Pressure) displaces the warm air.
Occurs during the day
Winds move from the water (High Pressure) to the Land (Low Pressure)
Land Breeze
At night the land cools off faster than water. Cool air over land (High Pressure) displaces Warm air over water (Low Pressure)
Winds move from the land (High Pressure) to the water (Low Pressure)
Convection
-the transfer of heat energy by the movement of air or liquid
-most of the troposphere is heated by this type of heat transfer
-warm less dense materials rise and cool more dense material sinks (convection currents)
Air Pressure
-Air pressure is the measure of the force with which air molecules push on a surface
-Air pressure is strongest in the Troposphere because of gravity
Seasons
primarily caused by the tilt of the Earth on its axis
Unequal Heating of the Earth
-Creates differences in air pressure
-Warm less dense air rises at the equator
-Cold more dense air sinks at the poles
Anemometer
instrument use to measure wind speed
Wind vane
instrument use to measure wind direction
Local Winds
Winds that blow over short distances
-Created by unequal heating of Earth's surface within a small area.
- Examples (Land Breeze and Sea Breeze)
Global Winds
Winds that blow steadily from specific directions over long distances
-created by unequal heating of Earth's surface
- produced by global convection currents-movement of air between the equator and the poles
-Examples (trade winds, prevailing westerlies, and polar easterlies)
Jet Stream
Bands of high speed winds about 10 kilometers above Earth's surface
-air planes are aided by these high speed winds when traveling east, pilots can save fuel by using these wind bands
Coriolis Effect
The way Earth's rotation makes winds curve
-Earth rotates from west to East
-Winds in the Northern Hemisphere curve right.
-Winds in the Southern Hemisphere curve left
Prevailing Westerlies
-Global wind belt in the United States
-push air masses from west to east
-weather in the United States typically moves from west to east because of this prevailing winds..

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