History chap 17
Terms in this set (62)
What was the Selective Service System and how did it help the US meet manpower needs?
It was a random selection draft for men between the ages of 18 and 44.
What contributions did women and minorities make to the military?
Both women and minorities worked in factories. They made war materials and replaced the jobs of men who had gone off to war.
How did American industry contribute to the war effort?
American industry shifted production from consumer goods to war materials. They began making war materials. They stopped making consumer goods. Production increased greatly.
How did the war create new job opportunities for women and minorities?
New war materials were needed and men left for war so their jobs were now available.
How did scientists help the war effort?
They invented new things for the war like radar and built bombs.
How did the mass media contribute to the war effort?
There was a lot of propaganda and nationalism was a major theme. It gave people hope and purpose.
How did the federal government act to control the economy?
They enforced wage and price controls, discouraged strikes by union, and rationed consumer goods.
How did government actions control everyday life?
They limited the amount people could buy and controlled wages.
army chief of staff that pushed Women's
code name for research work that extended across the country.
fixed allotments of goods deemed essential for the military
Women's Auxiliary Army Corps
u.s. army unit created during
WW2 to enable women to serve in non combat places
A. Philip Randolph
president and founder of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and the nation's most respected African-American labor leader, organized a march on Washington.
War Production Board
ensure that the armed forces and war industries received the resources they needed to win the war
Office of Price Administration
The OPA fought inflation by freezing prices on most goods
To what did Roosevelt and Churchill agree early in the war?
They agreed to be in an alliance together.
Why was winning the Battle of the Atlantic so crucial to the fortunes of the Allies?
It permitted supplies to reach England and it was crucial before Europe was invaded.
Why was the Battle of Stalingrad so important?
It destroyed much of Germany's Nazi army and it allowed continuation of a 2-front war against Germany.
What happened in the war in North Africa?
Germany established control of much of North Africa. The British and Americans pushed the Germans out of Africa permanently.
What happened after the Allies invaded Africa?
After they invaded Africa, they sped eastward, chasing the Afrika Korps. After months of fighting, the last of the Afrika Korps surrendered in May 1943
What was D-Day?
The allies launched an invasion of the European mainland.
What happened at the Battle of the Bulge?
The allies overturned the latest German offensive.
What did Allied troops find in Germany?
They found nazi death camps.
What happened to Hitler?
Hitler killed himself.
unleashed massive air and land bombardment against the enemy at St. Lô, providing a gap in the German line of defense through which General George Patton and his Third Army could advance
Harry S. Truman
became president after FDR died, gave order to drop the atomic bomb
Victory in Europe Day
General in the United States Army who helped
lead the Allies to victory in the Battle of the Bulge
How extensive were the Japanese conquest?
Very. Japan controlled most of the Pacific Ocean, Manchuria, parts of China, Korea, and South east Asia.
What American actions surprised the Japanese?
Both the battle of Midway and the Doolittle raid surprised the Japanese.
What was the importance of the Battle of Midway?
Japan suffered great loss and it was a turning point in the war.
What strategy did the United States adopt in fighting Japan?
They adopted "island hopping". Island hopping is purposely avoiding battles at nonstrategic islands, selecting only important targets to attack in the Pacific Ocean
What were Kamikazes?
Japanese aircrafts carrying explosives meant for suicide bombing.
Why did the Japanese fight so hard on Iwo Jima?
They fought so hard to protect their homeland.
Why did the Allies believe that Okinawa was a for taste of an invasion of Japan?
Because they would not surrender no matter what.
What was the Manhattan Project?
The Manhattan Project designed and tested the atomic bomb.
How did scientists view using the atomic bomb?
The scientists viewed the atomic bomb as the most ambitious scientific enterprise in history, it was also the best-kept secret of the war.
When was the atomic bomb used?
On August 6th 1945, the bomb was dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
What plans for peacekeeping did the US make near the end of the war?
temporary occupation of Germany by the four powers: Soviet Union, Britain, France, and U.S.A created the United Nations (peacekeeping organization) and free elections in occupied territories.
What did the US do with the surviving German and Japanese leaders?
German leaders and nazis were put on trial (Nuremberg) and japanese leaders were also put on trial.
What happened to Japan after the war?
During the seven-year American occupation, MacArthur reshaped Japan's economy by introducing free-market practices that led to a remarkable economic recovery. MacArthur also worked to transform Japan's government. He called for a new constitution that would provide for woman suffrage and guarantee basic freedoms.
Battle of Midway
allies decimated the Japanese fleet at Midway, an island near Hawaii. The allies then tok an offensive and moved toward
an atomic bomb (little boy) was released over Hiroshima, an important Japanese military center. Almost every building in the city collapsed into dust from the force of the blast.
three days after little boy was dropped, a bomb (fat man) was dropped on Nagasaki, leveling half the city.
the court proceedings held in Nuremberg after WWI where nazi leaders were tried for crimes
How did the war affect American workers?
Unemployment fell to a low of 1.2 percent during the war. Average weekly pay rose 10 percent during the war. Many were able to save money for the future. Farmers also did well during the war. Women were also able to work more while men were away at war, thus proving their importance in society
How did the growth of the defense industry affect American population patterns?
Americans whose families had lived for decades in one place suddenly uprooted themselves to seek work elsewhere. More than a million newcomers poured into California between 1941 and 1944. Towns with defense industries saw their populations double and even triple, sometimes almost overnight.
How did wartime activities affect families?
Many young children got used to being left with neighbors or relatives or in child-care centers as more and more mothers went to work. Teenagers left at home without parents sometimes drifted into juvenile delinquency. When fathers did come home, there was often a painful period of readjustment as family members got to know one another again. The war helped create new families, too. Longtime sweethearts as well as couples who barely knew each other rushed to marry before the soldier or sailor was shipped overseas.
How were African Americans treated at home and in the military?
African Americans made some progress on the home front. During the war, thousands of African Americans left the South. The percentage of African Americans working in skilled or semiskilled jobs rose from 16 to 30 percent. However, discrimination was present everywhere. There was a strong racial tension in the military.
How did Americans react to progress in acceptance of African
Many were angry and turned to violence and riots
Why were Japanese Americans placed in internment camps?
After the bombing, citizens feared that the Japanese would soon attack the United States. Frightened people believed false rumors that Japanese Americans were committing sabotage by mining coastal harbors and poisoning vegetables.This caused a wave of prejudice against Japanese Americans. Early in 1942, the War Department called for the mass evacuation of all Japanese Americans from Hawaii
How were Japanese Americans compensated for internment?
$20,000 to each japanese american that was placed in a camp.
GI Bill of Rights
This bill provided education and training for veterans, paid for by the federal government. Just over half the returning soldiers, or about 7.8 million veterans, attended colleges and technical schools under the GI Bill
founded an interracial organization called the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
interactive group that worked on getting rid of segregation in the north
Japanese American Citizens League (JACL)
pushed the government to compensate those sent to the camps for their lost property
Who were the Nisei and where did they live?
The Nisai were American citizens whose parents had emigrated from Japan. They lived in Hawaii.
How did americans react after the attack on pearl harbor
Uniting under the battle cry "Remember Pearl Harbor!" they set out to prove Japan wrong. Manyjoined army.
How did industrys help in the war effort
Within weeks of the shutdown in production, the nation's automobile plants had been retooled to produce tanks, planes, boats, and command cars. They were not alone. Across the nation, factories were quickly converted to war production. A maker of mechanical pencils turned out bomb parts. A bedspread manufacturer made mosquito netting. A soft-drink company converted from filling bottles with liquid to filling shells with explosives.
an invasion of Axis-controlled North Africa, commanded by American General Dwight D. Eisenhower.
The Allied invasion, code-named Operation Overlord, was originally set for June 5, but bad weather forced a delay. Banking on a forecast for clearing skies, Eisenhower gave the go-ahead for D-Day