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What two ways have geologist used to explore the Earth's interior?

Rock Samples and Seismic Waves

What is most of the oceanic crust made up of?


What is most of the continental crust made up of?


Describe what happens to temperature and pressure as you go deeper into the Earth?

Temperature rises and Pressure increases

What are the three main layers of the Earth?

Crust, Mantle, and Core

What do we call the outermost part, of the mantle?


In Earth's middle layer, what do we call the soft rock layer that bends like plastic?


What materials make up most of the center(core) of the earth?

Nickel and Iron

List the three types of heat transfer and briefly describe each.

Convection: Heat transfer through fluid. Radiation: Heat transfer through space. Conduction: Heat transfer through solids.

Define density:

The amount of mass in a given space

Draw a convection curent and briefly explain what is occuring

Density increase - drops - heats - density decreases - rises - cools

Why are convection currents so important?

They cause or drive wind, weather, ocean current, plate tectonics, and contenental drifts.

Who came up with the Theory of Continental Drift?

Alfred Wegener

Name 3 pieces of evidence that supports his theory.

Similar rocks on multiple continents; Same fossils on multiple continents; Map looks like puzzle pieces

Why was his theory rejected?

He could not come up with the mechanism that caused it.

What does Sea Floor Spreading have to do with the Continental Drift?

It caused it.

What is sea floor spreading?

Process by which new crust forming at the mid-ocean ridge pushes the sea floor outward

Name the three different types of boundaries.

Convergent; Divergent; Transform

Which boundary causes the most earthquakes?


What is suduction IN YOUR OWN WORDS?

One plate that is more dense goes under another and back into another

Name two pieces of evidence that supports sea floor spreading.

Magnetic Strips; Rock Samples get older the further from the mid-ocean

Define Scientific Theory

Well tested explanation for a wide range of observations

Why does the book use a crack egg shell to describe the idea of plate tectonics?

the shell, like Earth's Lithosphere is full of cracks, each piece representing the plates

What is a rift valley?

What's left between two divergent plates

What boundary formed the Himalayan mountain range?

Convergent Boundary

What boundary formed the San Andreas Fault?

Tranform Boundary

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