Color Theory 2243
Edna McMillan. Color Theory.
Terms in this set (126)
Colors made by lights which, when mixed, become lighter in value.
The illusion of color and shape produced in the visual apparatus after staring at a strong color for some time. A positive after image is the same color as the original; a negative after image is its complement.
Hues that lie next to each other on a color wheel and share a common hue. (Blue, blue-green, blue)
A family of colorants synthesized from coal-tar, including reds, black, greens, and blue-reds.
The tendency of forms seen at a great distance through a hazy atmosphere to blur toward uniformity in hue and value, with no sharp distinctions between colors or edges. In many atmospheres, everything will take on a blue cast.
A large family of colorfast, highly saturated, synthetic colorants developed from petroleum.
The possibility of changing a design considerably by simply changing one of its colors; discovered by rugmaker Wilhelm von Bezold in the 19th Century.
Layers of different colors applied to a painting so that they show through each other as opposed to being physically blended on the canvas or mixed on the palette.
Cathode Ray Tube
Older hardware used in television and computer monitors, with beams of electrons striking phosphors of light primaries.
The use of light and shadow effects in a painting.
Any color other than black, grays, and white.
In lights, a measure of the combination of hue and saturation in a color.
The plotting of hue and saturation coordinates on a two-dimensional grid.
In television, a signal indicating both hue and saturation.
The use of colored lights for healing purposes.
Notation for the four subtractive primary inks used in the printing process--cyan, magenta, yellow, and black.
Theoretically, light in which the waves are all of the same length and in unchanging relationship to each other, as approximated by a laser beam.
A two-dimensional work of art in which found objects are glued to a flat surface.
A visual phenomenon where we see the color of an object in one light and continue to associate that color with the object though the color continues to change with the lighting conditions throughout the day.
A style originating from the mid-twentieth-century New York School featureing large, nonobjective areas of color.
A computerized instrument that measures the amount of power in each wavelength in a light source.
In computerized processes, attempting to hold colors the same no matter in what medium they are displayed or printed.
Color Negative Process
In color print photography, the activation of dyes in the film to release colors that are complementary to those in the original scene. A positive print in the original colors is then created from this negative.
Color Positive (Reversal) Process
In the creation of color transparencies, a series of steps which culminates in the release of magenta, cyan, and yellow dyes in the films three layers. These mix to form the colors of the original when the developed film is seen in the light.
In printing, colored images are broken down into screens of certain primaries (in four-color process, they are magenta, cyan, yellow, and black) which when superimposed and printed will yield an approximation of the original colors.
A circular, two-dimensional model showing color relationships, originating from Sir Isaac Newton's blending of the straight array of spectral hues into a circle.
Colors that lie opposite each other on a color wheel. When places side by side they will intensify each other visually; when mixed as pigments they will dull each other.
Special cells in the retina at the back of the eye which enable us to distinguish hues in daylight.
In printing, referring to any image with a range of gradually changing values.
Critical Color Matching
The precise mixing of pigments or ink dyes to match a given sample.
Coloring of materials by immersion in water with water-soluble dyes.
A material colorant that is not water-soluble but can be applied in a soap solution.
Juxtaposition of dots in different colors in computer printing to produce optical color mixtures.
The juxtaposition of tiny dots of unmixed paints, giving an overall effect of color when mixed optically by the viewer's eye from a distance, usually associated with the Postimpressionists.
In light mixtures, another term for hue.
A color combination in which hues adjacent to each other on the color wheel are used with their respective complementaries.
Dots per inch. The dot formations within a printer, deriving from PPI.
Coloring material dissolved in a liquid solvent.
Computer printing technology similar to thermal wax transfer, but with variations in the amount of heat applied to produce varying colors.
Colors chosen for their emotional impact rather than their fidelity to "standard" colors perceived in the external world.
Flat Match color
In printing, the use of solid areas of unbroken color, often specified by a numerical system such as PMS (Pantone Matching System).
An object presented as a work of art or forming part of one, which was not initially intended for artistic purposes.
In printing, a technique for reproducing colored image by separating them into the primaries magenta, cyan, yellow, and black and printing each color from a separate plate.
A wall painting in which pigments are ground in water and stroked onto fresh plaster; when the plaster dries, the pigments form part of the surface itself.
Computerized printing in which CMYK separations can be overlaid in advance to view the final effect, and in which colors are sprayed onto the paper as tiny drops of varying size for an effect approximating a continuous tone photograph.
In oil painting, a transparent film of color painted over another layer of color. In ceramics, a glass like coating of silicates that melts and fuses to the clay when it is fired.
Hard Edge Painting
A painting with precise boundaries between nonobjective colored areas, characteristic of some mid-twentieth-century work.
A combination of six numbers and letters used in specifying web safe colors.
A two-dimensional image that appears three dimensional, created from waves of light or other energy forms which develop interference patterns when deflected off a three-dimensional object.
Hue, saturation, and brightness--the variables in color specified in television technologies.
The color quality identified by color names, such as "red" and "blue." This is determined by the color's wavelength.
Computer-based technology in which ink is sent through nozzles by heat or pressure.
The common format for today's photographic film, in which three thin layers of gelatin containing chemicals that are sensitive to blue, green, or red lights are sandwiched together.
Light-sensitive pigments in the cones of the eyes, thought to be somehow involved in our ability to distinguish hues.
Just Noticeable Difference
The least change that average humans can distinguish from one color to another.
Pigments that are made from dyes.
The use of relatively few colors in a work of art.
The color sensation received froma nearby object under average lighting conditions.
The degree of lightness or darkness in light mixtures, corresponding to value in pigments.
An aspect of our vision that allows us to perceive matching colors under certain lighting conditions, when shown two color samples which have different spectral wavelengths. This complex visual phenomenon makes color reproduction possible.
In Josef Albers's color interaction experiments, a color that results from mixing equal parts of two other colors and is then shown between these two "parents."
Referring to a color combination based on variations in value and saturation of a single hue, perhaps with the addition of some neutral colors.
In fabric dyeing, a fixative.
One billionth of a meter, used in measuring wavelengths of light.
A black, white, or gray--one of the nonchromatic hues.
The use of a wide range of colors in a work of art.
A model that accounts for color vision by means of hypothetical pairs of receptors responding to opposing colors; if they respond to one, its opposite is inhibited.
Colors that spread beyond their physical boundaries causing illusory color sensations on adjacent neutral surfaces.
Phase Change/Solid Ink Printing
Computer-based technology in which colorants are solid wax, liquefied only long enough for application to paper.
On the back of a television screen, tiny dots of blue, green, and red fluorescing powder, which radiate light when struck by an electron signal.
Powdered coloring material used to give hues to paints and inks.
In computer graphics, one of many tiny points on the computer screen determined by intersections of x and y axes.
A technique in painting whereby dots of pure hues are placed close together on a white ground to coax the viewer's eye to mix them optically.
In photography, a developing process in which continuous tone images are converted into flat areas of any colors.
Pixels per inch. the pixels (picture element) of a computer, which become dot formations, or DPI (dots per inch), within the printer.
those hues from which all others can theoretically be mixed; in refracted colors, red, green, and blue; in reflected colors, red, yellow, and blue.
Albert Munsell's term for the five pigment primaries used in his color model (green, blue, purple, red, and yellow).
The act of profiling sets up a record of how a computer, printer, or scanner is behaving. Calibration features are built into many computers. These enable the computer's behavior to be kept in line with the color profile that has been set up.
In video, another word for saturation.
A colorant that bonds chemically with the fiber.
Color seen when light is reflected from a pigmented surface.
Color resulting from passing light through a prism, breaking it down into its constituent wavelengths.
The inner surface of the back of the eye, where rods and cones respond to qualities of light.
In graphic design, designation of shapes or letters that will not be printed with ink but remain the color of the paper, as a negative of the positive image provided.
Red, green, blue--the additive primary colors of light mixtures, used in color television and color computer monitors.
Visual purple, a light-sensitive pigment in the rods of the retina.
Light-sensitive cells in the eye that operate in dim light to distinguish values.
The relative purity of a color, also called intensity.
In printing, a dot pattern used to create the impression of a certain value.
Hues made by mixing two primary colors.
Softly graded tones in an oil painting, giving hazy atmospheric effect, highly developed in the work of Leonardo da Vinci
In Ostwald's model, the color change that results when one adds black and decreases the percentage of the original hue.
In common television sets, a metal grid with tiny holes lying opposite triads of phosphors, used to focus electron beams directly on the phosphors.
In general, the optical effect of adjacent colors on each other; more specifically, the tendency of complementary colors to intensify each other when placed side by side.
A special photographic development effect in which development includes brief exposure to low-intensity colored lights, thus reversing colors.
Those colors seen in a rainbow, or in the spectrum created when white light passes through a prism.
Spectral Sensitivity Curve
A graphic representation of the degree of brightness perceived by the human eye in lights of different wavelengths.
A machine used to measure properties of energy in each part pf the spectrum in a sample of light or a pigmented surface.
A color combination whereby a hue is used with the hues lying to either side of its direct complementary.
Subtractive Color Mixing
Combination of pigments, which results in darkened mixtures.
The color phenomenon observed when differently colored areas are viewed one after another, as in looking at a white area after staring at a red one. If the initial image is highly saturated, it complement may seem to appear in the second area.
Synergistic Color Mixing
Allowing the energies of certain hues to combine optically on a neutral ground color.
The ability to gather sense perceptions from perceptual systems not usually associated with them, such as hearing colors.
The colors created by mixing a primary and an adjacent secondary.
Thermal Wax Transfer
A computer-based printing technology in which small dots of cyan, magenta, yellow, and black ink are fused by heat to paper.
In Ostwald's model of color relationship, the effect of adding white and decreasing the percentage of the original hue.
In Ostwald's system, the effect of adding both black and white and decreasing the percentage of the original hue.
A painted effect when one film of color is lying over another color.
Triadic Color Scheme
The use of three colors equally speced from each other on a color wheel.
Triadic Color System
An early-twentieth-century rule that there should be equal proportions of "sunlight" and "shadow" hues in a painting.
The idea that there are basically three kinds of cones in the human eye: red-sensitive; green-sensitive, and blue-sensitive.
The degree of lightness or darkness in a color.
A colorant that does not give the desired hue in a fiber until a second influence has been added, such as exposure to sunlight or an acid solution.
Electronic light signals recorded from images and then displayed on a television monitor.
Computer-generated illusionary experience of three-dimensional environments.
The range of wavelengths seen by the human eye.
The distance from crest to crest in a wave of energy.
The observation that to mix visually equal steps in value, one must mix geometrically increasing proportions of black or white.
Contrast of Hue
The juxtaposition of undiluted contrasts of primary colors--red, yellow, blue--produce the most intense luminosity. weaker contrasts are produced by juxtaposing primary colors with secondaries and tertiaries or by juxtaposing tints and shades of colors.
This relationship may be achieved through contrasts between white, grays, and black or contrasts between pure, fully saturated hues and desaturated hues (by mixing with white, black, grays, or complementary hues.)
Maximum Chroma -- Achieved by juxtaposing desaturated hues with hues at full intensity.
Minimum Chroma -- Achieved by juxtaposing desaturated hues with hues which are not at full intensity (desaturated by white, black, gray, or complementary hues.)
Cold Warm Contrast
In this contrast effective relationships are made by choreographing differences between the visual temperature of colors. Red-orange represents the "hottest" color and blue-green the "coldest."
This contrast is achieved through the use of hues which are direct opposites on the color wheel. These complements may be used at full intensity and at varying stages of desaturation by mixing the complementary hues. Achromatic values and several complementary sets may be used as well.
This contrast is a reference to the effect of one hue upon another. Whenever two different hues are juxtaposed, the contrast between them intensifies the difference between them. Blue appears brightest when placed next to orange.
Contrast of Saturation
This contrast is achieved through contrasts of brightness or the purity of colors set against those which have been dulled or desaturated by adding white, black, or its compliment.
Contrast of Extension
This contrast refers to differences of size and area in a color composition. contrasting color shapes (differing sizes) can be made to appear balanced by the numerical ratio of colors used. Example; Yellow and violet -- 9:3 -- Accordingly, one would make the quantity of yell three times as large as that of violet.
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