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All Terms for Physical Conditions
Key terms from CH. 1 of text
Terms in this set (231)
The unselfish concern for the welfare of others. This concept is reflected in actions and attitudes of commitment, caring, dedication, responsiveness, and understanding.
The body functions and the body structures that reside within the person (body functions, body structures).
The conditions that surround the person (cultural, physical, social, personal, spiritual, temporal, virtual).
Emphasizes the importance of valuing the inherent worth and uniqueness of each person. This value is demonstrated by an attitude of empathy and respect for self and others.
Requires that all individuals be perceived as having the same fundamental human rights and opportunities. This value is demonstrated by an attitude of fairness and impartiality.
Allows the individual to exercise choice and to demonstrate independence, initiative, and self-direction.
Places value on the upholding of such moral and legal principles as fairness, equity, truthfulness, and objectivity.
Performance in areas of occupation
Broad categories of human activity that are typically part of daily life. The areas include activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, education, work, play, leisure, and social participation.
The habits, routines, and roles that a person adopts.
The features of what a person does during an activity. These skills are separated into the categories of motor skills, process skills, and communication/interaction skills.
Requires that the person be identified first and the disease used as a secondary descriptor.
The ability to govern and discipline oneself through the use of reason. To be prudent is to value judiciousness, discretion, vigilance, moderation, care, and circumspection in the management of one's affairs, to temper extremes, make judgments, and respond on the basis of intelligent reflection and rational thought.
Requires that we be faithful to facts demonstrated by being accountable, honest, forthright, accurate, and authentic in our attitudes and actions.
Inability to recognize objects by touch (also called tactile agnosia)
Inability to coordinate muscle activity during voluntary
Resembling athetosis or repetitive involuntary, slow, sinuous, writhing movements. Classification of cerebral palsy in which involuntary purposeless movement occurs when an individual attempt purposeful motion. The abnormal movements may not only occur in the limb being moved but also involve an "overflow" of activity to all the other limbs with an exaggeration of reflexes.
A chronic lung disease of babies, which most commonly develops in the first 4 weeks after birth and most often affects born at least 4 weeks before term.
Alternate involuntary muscular contraction and relaxation in rapid succession.
Abnormal shortening of muscle tissue that renders the muscle highly resistant to stretching, which can lead to permanent disability. In many cases, contracture can be prevented by range of motion (ROM) exercises (active or passive) and by adequate support of the joints to eliminate constant shortening or stretching of the muscles and surrounding tissue.
Paralysis of like parts on either side of the body. In cerebral palsy, diplegia describes involvement of the lower extremities predominantly, with only mildly affected upper extremities.
Imperfect articulation of speech caused by disturbances of muscular control resulting from central or peripheral nervous system damage.
Deformity in which the foot is plantar flexed, everted, and abducted.
Deformity in which the foot is planter flexed, inverted and adducted.
Caused by stomach acid coming up from the stomach into the esophagus. A typical symptom is heartburn.
The ability by which outlines, numbers, words, or symbols traced or written on the skin or recognized.
Paralysis of one side of the body, usually caused by a brain lesion, such as a tumor or a cerebrovascular accident. Paralysis occurs on the side opposite the lesion, or infarct, because of decussation of most of the fibers in the motor tracts of the brain. For example, damage to the right hemisphere of the brain affects motor control of the left half of the body.
Loss of one half of the visual field, on the same side, in both eyes.
Abnormal muscle tone felt as too much resistance to movement as a result of hyperactive reflexed and a loss of inhibiting influences from higher brain centers.
Reduced tone; noted by minimal resistance to passive movement.
Insufficient oxygenation of the blood.
A form of hemolytic jaundice of the newborn. The basal ganglia and other areas of the brain and spinal cord are infiltrated with bilirubin, a yellow-pigmented substance produced by the breakdown of hemoglobin. Develops during the 2nd to 8th day of life.
Abnormally increased convexity in the curvature of the thoracic spine viewed from the side, resulting from an acquired disease, an injury, or a congenital disorder or disease.
Forward curvature of the lumbar spine
Involuntary, rapid, rhythmic movement (horizontal, vertical, rotatory, or mixed, i.e., two types) of the eyeball.
Innate primary reactions found in newborns and indicative of severe brain damage if present beyone their usual time of disappearance. Adult patient with closed head injury or stroke ma manifest these signs; absence on reevaluation is a sign of progress in recovery. Examples include placing reactions, Moro reflex, grasp reflex, rooting reflex, and sucking reflex.
Paralysis of all four limbs (also referred to as tetraplegia).
Lateral curvature of the vertebral column. This deviation of the normally straight vertical line of the spine may or may not include rotation or deformity of the vertebrae.
Deviation of the eye in which the visual axes assume a position relative to each other different from that required by the physiological conditions.
Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to passive longitudinal stretching.
Loss of ability to localize site of tactile sensations.
Ambiguous hand preference
Absence of a dominant hand preference; the switching of hands within the same activity;
A structure that is part of the limbic system and is involved in the emotions of aggression and fear.
Asperger's disorder/Asperger's syndrome
A neurobiologic disorder of unknown etiology in which cognitive and communication skills develop normally or nearly normally during the first few years of life. However, social impairment is evident, repetitive and stereotypical behaviors are observed, and communication, though not delayed, is marked by unusual topics of interest and rigidity.
The process of the brain recognizing and interpreting sound in the environment. This process is responsible for the comprehension of language.
A neurobiologic disorder with unknown etiology, characterized by significant delay or deviation in social interaction, communication, and repetitive or stereotyped behaviors.
A protein found in cow's milk. A theory in the field of autism suggests that children with autism do not digest this protein appropriately, leading to a buildup of morphine-like substances in the body and causing social withdrawal and abnormal behaviors.
A region of the brain that is found at the rear of the head and is above the brainstem. It has been traditionally known for its role in coordination of movement, but recent research suggests the cerebellum may also have a role in cognitive, sensory, language, and abstract-thinking skills.
Childhood disintegrative disorder
A rare neurobiologic disorder that develops in children who had appeared completely normal during their first few years of life. Following its onset, language, social interaction, and self-care skills are lost and autistic-like symptoms occur.
The automatic and meaningless repletion of another's words or phrases. In autism, this repetition may be either immediate or delayed, and often does not appear appropriate to the conversation or activity.
Inability to regulate emotions appropriately, typically resulting in laughing or crying in unsuitable contexts.
Region of the brain located at the front of the cerebrum. This region is responsible for social behavior, spontaneous production of language, initiation of motor activity, processing sensory stimuli and then planning reaction as a result of input, abstract thinking, problem solving, and judgment.
Gastrointestinal (GI) disorder
A disorder of the digestive system.
Sharing attention with another person by alternating gaze between an object and a person or following the gaze of.
A protein found in wheat products. A theory in the field of autism suggests that children with autism do not digest this protein appropriately, leading to a buildup of morphine-like substances in the body and causing social withdrawal and abnormal behaviors
A structure that is part of the limbic system and is involved in long-term memory functions.
The ability to read words above age-level expectation. Usually, children with this ability have difficulty understanding the meaning of the words they read.
Region of the brainstem that transmits error signals to the cerebellum.
The ability to use eye contact and gestures in order to share experiences with others.
This group of subcortical structures is involved in various emotions and memory functions.
Of or relation to the biologic study of the nervous system. The cause of autism is considered to be an abnormality in the structure of function of the brain.
A nerve cell that is specialized in transmitting and receiving electrical signals to communicate information between different regions of the body.
Pervasive developmental disorder
Term used to describe five main disorders: autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) and Rett's disorder. Note: This classification system/PDD labels changed with the publication of the DSM-V.
Cells that form a layer near the surface of the cerebellum and convey signals away from the cerebellum.
A rare neurobiologic disorder that primarily affects females and is cause by a deviation on the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. This disorder has a distinctive course since early development in children is typical, followed by the deceleration of head growth, loss of purposeful hand movements, and appearance of autistic-like symptoms.
The process of memorizing and using language overheard from others rather than producing spontaneously generated language.
A type of sensory defensiveness in which a person overreacts or avoids touching certain textures.
Theory of mind
The ability to understand another person's thoughts, feelings, or intentions.
Birth defect with a nongenetic origin that can contribute to or cause ID due to shrinkage of the posterior part of the brain.
Birth defect with a nongenetic origin that can contribute to or cause ID due to premature fusion of the skull resulting in a reduction in space for the brain to grow an in increased intracranial pressure.
A herpesvirus that can result in a congenital infection.
A chromosomal condition caused by the presence of all or part of an extra 21st chromosome.
Fragile X syndrome
A genetic cause of ID that results from a mutation at what is known as the fragile site of the X chromosome.
Birth defect with a nongenetic origin that can contribute to or cause ID due to an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain causing increased intracranial pressure and progressive enlargement of the skull.
An environmental factor in the etiology of ID that is the result of the maternal condition in which the presence of blood phenylalanine levels exceed the limits of the upper reference range (2mg/dL).
A pathological condition that results in insufficient oxygenation of the blood.
A group of genetic conditions that results in progressive weakening of the muscles. Most typed of MD are multisystem disorders that can affect the heart, gastrointestinal and nervous systems, endocrine glands, skin, eyes, and brain.
A medical disorder characterized by an appetite for nonfood substances.
Birth defect with a nongenetic origin that can contribute to or cause ID due to an incomplete closing of the embryonic neural tube.
An autosomal, recessive, single gene disorder that can cause ID.
Environmental factors that cause malformations of an embryo or fetus.
An environmental factor in the etiology of ID that is the result of the maternal condition in which high blood pressure and protein in the urine develop after the 20th week of pregnancy.
Congestive Heart Failure
The inability of the heart to function as a pump, which results in a decreased blood flow to the tissues and congestion in the pulmonary and circulatory systems.
Persistent blood pressure measurements above the normal systolic 140 mm Hg) or diastolic (90 mm Hg) pressures.
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
Tied very closely to atherosclerosis where plaque, made of cholesterol, fat, calcium, and other substances, sticks, to the inner lining of arteries that are taking oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the body.
An inflammation of lung tissue, where the alveoli in the affected areas fill with fluid. The condition is caused by bacteria, viruses, aspiration, or immobility.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
A term that describes chronic bronchitis, asthma, emphysema, and bronchiectasis. The condition is irreversible and characterized by progressive limitation in the flow of air in and out of the lungs.
Myocardial Infarction (MI)
Tissue death caused by a lack of blood supply to the heart muscle.
Small sacs in the lungs which perform the gas exchange. Oxygen is moved into the blood stream from the alveoli to be carried to cells throughout the the body.
A thin flap of tissue in the esophagus that protects the lungs from foreign objects by covering the trachea during swallowing.
Hair-like structures in the lungs airways that help to move the mucus out and clean the airways.
Abnormal rapid heart rate which may indicate inefficient heart function, reducing circulation integrity and diminishing oxygenation of other body structures.
Systolic Blood Pressure
The amount of force used to pump blood out of the heart into the arterial circulation.
Diastolic Blood Pressure
The pressure in the arteries when the heart is at rest.
A widespread form of arteriosclerosis in which deposits of plaques (atheromas) containing cholesterol and other lipid material are formed within the inner layer (intima) of large and medium sized arteries.
A procedure where a small mesh tube is inserted into the coronary artery to widen the opening, thus increasing the blood flow.
Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)
A process in which arteries or veins from other parts of the body (often the legs) are "harvested" and then surgically attached to bypass the blocked arteries near the heart.
Excision of thickened atheromatous areas of the innermost layer of an artery (intima) to improve circulation.
Difficult, labored, or painful breathing.
Crackling sounds or rumbling sounds caused by increased mucus which the physician diagnoses by way of listening to the chest during breathing.
The destruction of the walls of the bronchioles and alveoli, which results in abnormal and enlarged air spaces.
Inflammation of the bronchial tubes resulting in a thickening of the walls, making it difficult to breathe.
Metabolic Equivalent (MET)
A MET is the amount of energy that an activity requires, with more sedentary tasks such as watching Tv or doing computer work using 1.5 to 2 METs ranging up to some competitive sports requiring 11 or more METs.
the inability to learn new long-term declarative information.
pathological inhalation of food or mucus into the respiratory tract.
noncancerous tumors that do not invade other body tissues or spread to other body parts. However, may become life threatening when they cause deficits with cell growth by pressing on nearby structures and tissues.
a non-sleep loss of consciousness associated with unresponsiveness to touch, pain, sound, or movement that lasts for an extended period.
a situation in which direct brain damage is incurred when the cerebrum strikes the skull (coup) and then accelerates in the opposite direction.
an extensor posture of all limbs and/or the trunk.
flexion of the upper, but extension of the lower limbs.
a broad band of skills that allow an individual to engage in independent, self-directed behavior. Involves the ability to formulate context-appropriate goals and to initiate, plan, organize, and sequence and adapt behavior based on anticipated or actual consequences of actions.
the formation of bone in soft tissue and periarticular locations. Early clinical signs include warmth, swelling, pain, and decreased joint motion.
the abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain.
composed of abnormal cells that multiply rapidly, with the ability to invade or metastasize into other tissues.
the spread of a disease from one organ or part to another nonadjacent organ or part.
Mild acquired brain injury
clinically identified as a loss of consciousness for under 10 minutes or amnesia, a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) rating of 13 to 15, no skull fracture on physical examination, and a nonfocal neurological examination.
Moderate acquired brain injury
hospitalization of at least 48 hours, an initial GCS rating of 9 to 12 or higher.
loss of memory of events that occurred prior to the injury.
Severe acquired brain injury
loss of consciousness and or posttraumatic amnesia for more than 24 hours, a GCS rating of 1 to 8.
A form of peripheral neuropathy. A group of symptoms that occur when there is damage to the nerves that manage every day body functions such as blood pressure, heart rate, bowel and bladder emptying, and digestion.
A person who has diabetes is at increased risk for slow-healing injuries to distal extremities. It is caused by decreased vascularization; the risk of an infection that does not heal is higher. One possible intervention is limb amputation.
State of medical emergency; life-threatening condition caused by a state of relative insulin deficiency, characterized by hyperglycemia, ketonemia, metabolic acidosis, and electrolyte depletion. Often the first presenting sign of type 1 diabetes.
It is the average concentration of glucose in the blood over a 6-week to 3-month time period, with levels of >6.5% diagnostic of diabetes.
An abnormally high concentration of glucose (115 to 139 mg/dL) in the circulating blood, especially with reference to a fasting level.
Persistent blood pressure measurements above the normal systolic (140 mm Hg) or diastolic (90 mm Hg) pressures.
An abnormally small concentration of glucose in the circulating blood, that is, 50 mg/dL in men and <45 mg/dL in women.
Condition in which ketone bodies are present. Ketones are waste products from the body's breakdown of fat for energy.
Any disease of the kidney.
Peripheral artery disease
Leads to impaired wound healing, tissue hypoxia, and decreased mobilization of white blood cells to infected tissues; occurs at an earlier age and at a rate of two to four times higher in people with diabetes.
Most common symptoms include burning pain; stabbing, prickling, or tingling sensation; pathologic skin sensitivity; or deep aching pain; commonly diagnosed among people with diabetes.
Excessive thirst that occurs frequently.
Excessive excretion of urine.
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the retina.
Type 1 diabetes
A disease in which the pancreas stops producing insulin as a result of autoimmune destruction of cells.
Type 2 diabetes
A disease where the body cells are insulin resistant.
Disease in the number of red blood cells (RBC) or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood.
the fusion of a joint, often in an abnormal position, usually resulting from destruction of articular cartilage and subchondral bone, as occurs in rheumatoid arthritis.
A specialized immune protein produced because of the introduction of an antigen into the body. The production of antibodies is a major function of the immune system.
Refers to the articulations between the articular facets of adjacent vertebrae, or facet joints. These joins are frequent site of degenerative joint disease, or osteoarthritis, spondylitic and traumatic diseases.
painful inflammation and stiffness of the joints.
A common hand deformity secondary to the pathologic effects of rheumatoid arthritis resulting in a combination of PIP joint flexion and DIP joint hyperextension.
Inflammation of the fluid-filled sac (bursa) that lies between a tendon and skin, or between a tendon and bone.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Resulting from compression on the volar aspect of the wrist, which then impinge upon the median nerve. This causes paresthesia of the palmar aspect of the thumb, the second and third digits, and the radial aspect of the fourth digit.
De Quervain's Tenosynovitis
Pathologic process that involves extensors at the thumb, causes severe pain and discomfort, resulting in a decrease in hand function and the ability to grip.
are the most mobile joints and are by far the most common articular pattern. Because these joints possess a synovial membrane and contain synovial fluid, these joints are more commonly referred to as synovial joints.
A virus causing infection and is characterized by fatigue and general malaise. Infection with EBV is fairly common and is usually a transient and minor thing. However, in some individuals EBV can trigger chronic illness. It is a particular danger to people with compromised immune systems.
The initial response of the body to harmful stimuli and is achieved by the increased movement of plasma and leukocytes from the blood into the injured tissues. A cascade of biochemical events propagates and matures the inflammatory response, involving the local vascular and immune system.
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
The most common rheumatic disease in childhood. The diagnostic criteria for this disease are onset at age younger than 16 years, persistent arthritis in one or more joints for at least 6 weeks, and exclusion of other types of childhood arthritis.
Also referred to as degenerative joint disease, is a noninflammatory joint disease that results in deterioration of articular cartilage and the formation of new bone or osteophytes on the joint surface.
Activation of the synovial cells which accumulate and create pannus, a malignant mass over the cartilage, leading to cartilage breakdown. This granulation tissues continues to spread, the joint space is slowly effaced by fibrous adhesions, and eventually fibrous ankylosis appears.
Arthritis refers to join inflammation; "rheum" in rheumatoid refers to the stiffness, general aching, weakness, and fatigue that is experienced throughout the body.
An antibody that is measurable in the blood. Antibodies are normal proteins in our blood that are important parts of our immune system; however, rheumatoid factor is an antibody that is not usually present in the normal individual. The prognosis for those with an RF positive factor is that they are at higher risk for erosions, nodules, growth, retardation, lack of adequate bone mineralization, anemia, and poor functional status.
A physician who specializes in treatment of rheumatic diseases.
a chronic disease of unknown etiology causing corneal and conjunctival lesions and is characterized by dry eyes and mouth.
A deformity which results from contractures of the interosseus and flexor muscles and tendons, which in turn produce a flexor contracture of the MCP joint, compensatory hyperextension of the PIP joint, and flexion of the DIP joint.
Pertaining to, consisting of, or secreting synovia, the lubrication fluid of the joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths.
Inflammation of the synovial lining of the tendon shealth.
Donor skin taken from another person
The surgical transplantation of the patient's own skin from one area to another
Burn Scar Contracture
Forms due to the shortening and tightening of the burn scar (deformities are the most problematic over large joints)
A basic structural fibrous protein found in all tissue. Excessive deposition of this leads to a thickening of the burn scar
The preferred conservative method to treat hypertrophic scars and have been in use since the 1970s. They are thought to reduce oxygen flow to the scar thereby decreasing collagen production.
The cleansing and removal of nonadherent and nonviable tissue
The residual necrotic layers of skin destroyed by direct heat damage of the injury occurring secondary to heat damage
Medical practice of replenishing bodily fluid lost through sweating, bleeding, fluid shifts, or other pathologic processes.
Burn injury that destroys the entire epidermal and dermal layers of the skin and extends down into subcutaneous fat.
A cutaneous condition characterized by excess scar tissue, occur when the body overproduces collagen, which causes the scar to be raised above the surrounding skin; these scars take the form of a red raised lump on the skin
Burn injury which involves part or all of the epidermis. Referred to as second-degree burns.
Refers to the depths of the burn; also referred to as a first-degree burn, occurs when the top layer os skin, called the epidermis, is burned.
Autonomic dysreflexia (hyperreflexia)
An uninhibited and exaggerated reflex of the autonomic nervous system to stimulation. The response occurs in about 85% of all patients who have spinal cord injury above the level of the 6th thoracic vertebra. It is potentially dangerous because of attendant vasoconstriction and immediate elevation of blood pressure, which in turn can bring about hemorrhagic retinal damage or cerebrovascular accident. Less serious effects include severe headache, changes in heart rate, sweating, and flushing above the level of the spinal cord injury, and pallor and goose bumps below that level.
Passage of a catheter into a body channel or cavity, especially introduction of a catheter via the urethra into the urinary bladder.
The collection of dorsal and ventral nerve roots descending from the lower spinal cord and occupying the vertebral canal below the cord at the L1 region.
Use of manual pressure on the bladder to express urine, particularly in bladder training for individuals with paralysis. The hands are held flat against the abdomen, just below the umbilicus. A firm downward stroke toward the bladder is repeated six or seven times, followed by pressure from both hands placed directly over the bladder to manually remove all urine.
An ulcer caused by local interference with the circulation, usually occurring over a bony prominence at the sacrum, hip (trochanter), heel, shoulder, or elbow. It begins as a reddened area and can become an ulcer, also called bedsore or a pressure sore.
The formation of bone in soft tissue and particular locations. Early clinical signs include warmth, swelling, pain, and decreased joint motion. Common joints for heterotopic ossification are the shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee.
The worm-like movement by which the alimentary canal or other tubular organs with both longitudinal and circular muscle fibers propel their contents, consisting of a wave of contraction passing along the tube.
A reflex, which is built in and does not need conscious thought to take effect, is the total of any particular autonomic response mediated by the nervous system. A reflex arc is usually a simple reflex such as a knee jerk, which involves only two nerves and one synapse. Other arcs may involve an interneuron. When the sensory nerve ending is stimulated, a nerve impulse travels along a sensory (afferent) neuron to the spinal cord. An association neuron or interneuron then transfers the impulse to a motor (efferent) neuron, which carries the impulse to a muscle which then contracts and moves a body part.
Lateral curvature of the vertebral column. This deviation of the normally straight vertical line of the spine may or may not include rotation or deformity of the vertebrae.
Result of an acute transverse lesion of the spinal cord that causes immediate flaccid paralysis and loss of all sensation and reflex activity (including autonomic functions) below the level. On return of reflex activity, there is increased spasticity of muscles and exaggerated tendon reflexes
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
a progressive neurological disorder characterized by degeneration of motor neurons located in the ventral horn of the spinal cord
a wasting of tissue that results in decreased muscle mass
a disease that occurs when a child inherits a normal gene from one parent and an effected gene from another
a disease that occurs when both parents carry and pass on the affected gene
Charcot Marie Tooth (CMT)
an inherited neurological disorder that results in motor and sensory peripheral neuropathy
the use of one system or muscle group to complete the work not capable of being completed by the usual system
a condition existing before birth, at birth, or that develops during the first month of life
abnormal shortening of muscle tissue that renders the muscle highly resistant to stretching, which can lead to permanent disability.
a class of steroids that are produced in the adrenal cortex.
an enzyme expressed by various tissues and cells in the body
a vital part of the intracellular protein complex that is responsible for maintaining the shape and structure of the muscle fiber
diagnostic tool used for testing the electrical activity of muscles
a disease with family history
the inability to rise off the floor without using the upper extremities to "walk up" the thighs to assist with hip extension
when a person is observed to use his or her extremities to "walk up" the thighs to assist with hip extension, it is a positive Gower's Sign
forward curvature of the lumbar spine
a medical diagnostic tool used to examine the cellular makeup of the muscle tissue, and look at the differences in muscle fibers, fiber size, fiber splitting and fiber necrosis
disease that affect the nerves that control voluntary muscles
representing change. In the medical field, it usually means a continual decline in function
Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA)
a neuromuscular disease characterized by degeneration of motor neurons resulting in progressive muscular atrophy and weakness
a diagnostic observation in which two bulges are visible on either side of a depression on the back of the shoulder when a person is asked to abduct the shoulder to 90 degrees with 90-degree flexion of the elbows so that hands are pointing upward
a condition in which the shoulder blade protrudes from a person's back in an abnormal position
a disease that occurs when a mother who carries the affected gene passes it onto her son. Although the mother carries the affected gene on one of her X chromosomes, she may never show symptoms since it is a recessive trait
Refers to a fracture that has not broken through the skin.
Fracture resulting in dorsal displacement, dorsal comminuting, and radius shortening, often referred to as a "dinner fork deformity" , given its resemblance to an upside down fork.
A fracture in which a bone is broken, splintered, or crushed into a number of pieces.
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome( CRPS):
Also referred to as reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD), is a chronic pain condition in which high levels of nerve impulses are sent to an affected site.
also referred to as an open fracture as the fractured bone breaks through the skin surface and are more prone to infection.
When the bone takes more time to heal than is expected, it heals slowly, it may be suspected when pain and tenderness persists at the fracture site three months to one year after injury.
Distal Radius Fracture
Common fracture of the radius. Due to its proximity to the wrist joint, often referred to as a wrist fracture.
Skin discoloration caused by escape of blood into the tissues from ruptured blood vessels.
Often seen in children whose bones are still soft and growing, rather than snapping into two, the bone breaks on one side and bends on the other. It is similar to how a young twig or tree limb breaks.
The formation of bone in soft tissue and periarticular locations. Early clinical signs include: warmth, swelling, pain and decreased joint movement.
A fracture that results in humeral displacement and malposition of the distal limb.
Refers to non union of a fractured bone.
A fracture in which the bone is not healing. May be caused by several factors such as vascular and tissue damage, poor alignment, stress of the fracture site, and infection.
A fracture in which the bone breaks through the skins surface, also refered to as a compound fracture.
Open Reduction Internal fixation (ORIF)
A surgical procedure which involves the opening and reducing of fracture site. Internal fixation is commonly done after an open reduction to secure the fracture. Internal fixation involves securing the fracture site with pins, rodes, plates, and screws.
Also referred to as a degenerative joint disease, is a noninflammatory joint disease that results in deterioration of articular cartilage and the formation of new bone or osteophytes on the joint surface.
Low bone mass; reversible weakening of the bone that may be diagnosed through a bone density scan just as osteoporosis.
Disease characterized by low bone density and deterioration of bone. It is common in postmenopausal women due to the cessation of estrogen production.
A weakening of bone that may result in it being unable to sustain normal forces experienced during daily activities.
The final stage of bone healing in which the bone is ideally reshaped to its original form to enable it to resume its intended function best as possible.
Opposite of Colles' fracture in that the displacement from the break is positioned toward the volar or palmar aspect of the wrist rather than the dorsal aspect.
An orthopedic deformity that results from severe damage to tissues and muscles caused by increased pressure in the forearm compartments.
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