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70 terms

Language of Medicine- Chapter 14

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acquired immunity
production of antibodies and lymphocytes after exposure to an antigen
adenoids
mass of lymphatic tissue in the nasopharynx
antibody
protein produced by B cell lymphocytes to destroy antigens
antigen
substance that the body recognizes as foreign; evokes an immune response. Most antigens are proteins or protein fragments found on the surface of bacteria, viruses, or organ transplant tissue cells.
axillary nodes
lymph nodes in the neck region
B cell (B lymphocytes)
lymphocyte that originates in the bone marrow and transforms int a plasma cell to secrete antibodies.
cervical nodes
lymph nodes in the neck region
complement system
proteins in the blood that help antibodies and T cells kill their target
cytokines
proteins that aid and regulate the immune response. examples are interferons and interleukins
cytotoxic t cell, CD8+ cell, or T8 cell
t lymphocyte that directly kills foreign cells
dendritic cell
specialized macrophage that digests foreign cells and helps B and T cells to mark antigens for destruction
helper T cell, CD4+ cell, or T4 cell
lymphocyte that aids b cells and cytotoxic t cells in recognizing antigens and stimulating antibody production
immunity
body's ability to resist foreign organisms and toxins. This includes natural and acquired.
immunoglobulins
antibodies (gamma globulins) such as IgA, IgE, IgG, IgM, and IgD that are secreted by plasma cells in response to the presence of an antigen
immunotherapy
use of immune cells, antibodies, or vaccines to treat or prevent disease
inguinal nodes
lymph nodes in the groin region
interferons
proteins (cytokines) secreted by T cells to aid and regulate the immune response
interleukins
proteins (cytokines) that stimulate the growth of B and T lymphocytes
interstitial fluid
fluid in the spaces between cells. This fluid becomes lymph when it enters lymph capillaries
lymph
thin, watery fluid found within lymphatic vessels and collected from tissues throughout the body
lymph capillaries
tiniest lymphatic vessels
lymphoid organs
lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus gland
lymph node
a collection of stationary solid lymphatic tissue along lymph vessels
lymph vessel
carrier of lymph throughout the body; empty lymph into veins in the upper part of the chest
macrophage
large phagocyte found in lymph nodes and other tissues of the body
mediastinal nodes
lymph nodes in the area between the lungs in the thoracic cavity
monoclonal antibody
antibody produced in a laboratory to attack antigens and to destroy cells. it is useful in immunotherapy.
natural immunity
protection that an individual inherits to fight infection.
plasma cell
lymphocyte that produces and secretes antibodies. it originates from B lymphocytes.
right lymphatic duct
large lymphatic vessel in the chest that receives lymph from the upper right part of the body
spleen
organ near the stomach that produces, stores, and eliminates blood cells
suppressor T cell or Treg (regularoty T cell)
lymphocyte that inhibits the activity of B and T lymphocytes
T cell (T lymphocyte)
lymphocyte that originates in the bone marrow but matures in the thymus gland; it acts directly on antigens to destroy them or produce chemicals (cytokines) such as interferons and interleukins that are toxic to antigens
tolerance
the ability of T lymphocytes to recognize nd accept the body's own antigens as "self" or friendly. Once tolerance is established, the immune system will not react against the body
thoracic duct
large lymphatic vessel in the chest that receives lymph from below the diaphragm and from the left side of the body above the diaphragm; it empties the lymph into veins in the upper chest
thymus gland
organ in the mediastinum that conditions T lymphocytes to react to foreign cells and aids in the immune response
tonsils
mass of lymphatic tissue in the back of the oropharynx
toxin
poison; a protein produced by certain bacteria, animals, or plants
vaccination
exposure of an individual to a foreign protein (antigen) that provokes an immune response. The response will destroy any cell that losses the antigen on its surface and will protect against infection
vaccin
weakened or killed microorganisms, toxins, or other proteins given to induce immunity to infection or disease
immun/o
protection (root)
lymph/o
lymph (root)
lymphaden/o
lymph node (gland) (root)
splen/o
spleen (root)
thym/o
thymus gland (root)
tox/o
poison (root)
ana-
again, anew (prefix)
inter-
between (prefix)
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
group of clinical signs and symptoms associated with supression of the immune system and marked by opportunistic infections, secondary neoplasms, and neurologic problems
allergy
abnormal hypersensitivity acquired by exposure to an antigen
lymphoma
malignant tumor of lymph nodes and lymph tissue
multiple myeloma
malignant tumor of bone marrow cells
thymoma
malignant tumor of the thymus gland
allergen
substance capable of causing a specific hypersensitivity reaction in the body; a type of antigen
anaphylaxia
exaggerated or unusual sensitivity to foreign protein or other substance
atopy
hypersensitive or allergic state involving an inherited predisposition
CD4+ cells
helper t cells that carry the CD4 protein antigen on their surface. HIV binds to CD4 and infects and kills T cells bearing this protein, AIDS patients have an inadequate number of ________
Hodgkins disease
malignant tumor of the lymphoid tissue in the spleen and lymph nodes; red-sternberg cell often is found on microscopic analysis
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
virus (retrovirus) that causes AIDS
kaposi sarcoma
malignant lesion associated with AIDS; arises from the lining of capillaries and appears as red, purple, brown or black skin nodules
non-Hodgkin lymphomas
group of malignant tumors involving lymphoid tissue. examples are follicular lymphoma and large cell lymphoma
opportunistic infections
infectious diseases associated with AIDS; they occur because HIV infection lowers the body's resistance and allows infection by bacteria and parasites that normally are easily contained
protease inhibitor
drug that treats AIDS by blocking the production of protease, a proteolytic enzyme that helps create new viral pieces for HIV
reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTI)
drug that treats AIDS by blocking reverse transcriptase, an exnzyme needed to make copies of HIV
wasting syndrome
weight loss, decrease in muscular strength, appetite, and mental activity; associated with AIDS
CD4+ cell count
measures the number of CD4+ T cells (helper T cells) in the blood stream of patients with AIDS
ELISA
screening test to detect anti-HIV antibodies in the bloodstream
immunoelectrophoresis
test that separates immunoglobulins (IgM, IgG, IgE, IgA, IgD)
viral load test
measurement of the amount of AIDS virus (HIV) in the bloodstream
computed tomography (CT) scan
X-ray imaging produces cross-sectional and other views of anatomic structures