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substance that the body recognizes as foreign; evokes an immune response. Most antigens are proteins or protein fragments found on the surface of bacteria, viruses, or organ transplant tissue cells.
B cell (B lymphocytes)
lymphocyte that originates in the bone marrow and transforms int a plasma cell to secrete antibodies.
proteins that aid and regulate the immune response. examples are interferons and interleukins
specialized macrophage that digests foreign cells and helps B and T cells to mark antigens for destruction
helper T cell, CD4+ cell, or T4 cell
lymphocyte that aids b cells and cytotoxic t cells in recognizing antigens and stimulating antibody production
antibodies (gamma globulins) such as IgA, IgE, IgG, IgM, and IgD that are secreted by plasma cells in response to the presence of an antigen
fluid in the spaces between cells. This fluid becomes lymph when it enters lymph capillaries
thin, watery fluid found within lymphatic vessels and collected from tissues throughout the body
carrier of lymph throughout the body; empty lymph into veins in the upper part of the chest
antibody produced in a laboratory to attack antigens and to destroy cells. it is useful in immunotherapy.
right lymphatic duct
large lymphatic vessel in the chest that receives lymph from the upper right part of the body
suppressor T cell or Treg (regularoty T cell)
lymphocyte that inhibits the activity of B and T lymphocytes
T cell (T lymphocyte)
lymphocyte that originates in the bone marrow but matures in the thymus gland; it acts directly on antigens to destroy them or produce chemicals (cytokines) such as interferons and interleukins that are toxic to antigens
the ability of T lymphocytes to recognize nd accept the body's own antigens as "self" or friendly. Once tolerance is established, the immune system will not react against the body
large lymphatic vessel in the chest that receives lymph from below the diaphragm and from the left side of the body above the diaphragm; it empties the lymph into veins in the upper chest
organ in the mediastinum that conditions T lymphocytes to react to foreign cells and aids in the immune response
exposure of an individual to a foreign protein (antigen) that provokes an immune response. The response will destroy any cell that losses the antigen on its surface and will protect against infection
weakened or killed microorganisms, toxins, or other proteins given to induce immunity to infection or disease
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
group of clinical signs and symptoms associated with supression of the immune system and marked by opportunistic infections, secondary neoplasms, and neurologic problems
substance capable of causing a specific hypersensitivity reaction in the body; a type of antigen
helper t cells that carry the CD4 protein antigen on their surface. HIV binds to CD4 and infects and kills T cells bearing this protein, AIDS patients have an inadequate number of ________
malignant tumor of the lymphoid tissue in the spleen and lymph nodes; red-sternberg cell often is found on microscopic analysis
malignant lesion associated with AIDS; arises from the lining of capillaries and appears as red, purple, brown or black skin nodules
group of malignant tumors involving lymphoid tissue. examples are follicular lymphoma and large cell lymphoma
infectious diseases associated with AIDS; they occur because HIV infection lowers the body's resistance and allows infection by bacteria and parasites that normally are easily contained
drug that treats AIDS by blocking the production of protease, a proteolytic enzyme that helps create new viral pieces for HIV
reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTI)
drug that treats AIDS by blocking reverse transcriptase, an exnzyme needed to make copies of HIV
weight loss, decrease in muscular strength, appetite, and mental activity; associated with AIDS
CD4+ cell count
measures the number of CD4+ T cells (helper T cells) in the blood stream of patients with AIDS
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