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42 terms

Industrialization, Politics, and Migration (1890-1910)

Texas STAAR US History Review 1880-1910
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trust
monopoly; when one company/person owns or controls all of a certain industry
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
American government law that made monopolies (or trusts) illegal. Anti-Trust means against trusts or monopolies. - 1890
Interstate Commerce Act
U.S. law that regulated the railroad industry. The Act required that railroad rates be "reasonable and just." - 1897
laissez-faire
free market economy; government does not put rules on how people do business (the economy), "anything goes"
monopoly
trust; when one company/person owns or controls all of a certain industry
industry
all activity within a specific part of the economy; Examples: the automobile industry, the oil industry, the tourist industry
American Industrialization
The time when America started to focus more on making things and providing services (business and industry) than on farming
Bessemer Process
the steel-making process used by Andrew Carnegie that allowed him to make a lot of money; one cause of American Industrialization
Trans-Continental Railroads
railroads that went across the entire country, from the East Coast to the West Coast; people and goods could travel faster and to new places; one cause of American Industrialization
robber barons
American businessman who got rich through ruthless and unfair business tactics
Andrew Carnegie
robber baron, owned a monopoly on steel
John D. Rockefeller
robber baron, owned a monopoly on oil
Reasons/Causes of Industrialization
rail roads, natural resources, laissez-faire or free market economy, new factories
Effects of laissez-faire
robber barons, monopolies, Sherman Anti-Trust Act, Interstate Commerce Act
Effects of Industrialization
urban society, new technology, new machines, greater wealth, factory system, economic regulation
Panama Canal
shipping canal that connects the Pacific and Atlantic oceans; President Theodore Roosevelt finalized the project; working on it was said to be a "death sentence"
annexation
adding new land or territory to an existing land; Example: annexation of Hawaii by the United States
Reasons for American Expansionism
American economy need new markets & raw materials; Missionaries could spread Christian values; Display U.S. power; Promoted strong navy
Spanish-American War
1898 - Important turning point in American history;
Effects: U.S. emerges as world power; Spain's colonial empire ended; U.S. gains control in the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam; Cuba becomes a U.S. Protectorate
Scopes Monkey Trial
Trial over whether or not the theory of evolution could be taught in schools.
William Jennings Bryan
Politician in Populist party; defeated candidate for President; argued for "free silver" to increase money supply; prosecutor in the Scopes Monkey Trial - against evolution
Progressives
1900-1920: believed in a government that was more responsive to the voters; goal was to correct injustices caused by industrialization; led to social reform Example: Jane Addams & settlement houses
Populist party
Political party. Wanted: free coinage of silver, direct election of senators, income taxes, and limits on immigration. Example: Williams Jennings Bryan
strike
group of workers refuses to go to work until the employer meets a demand
Knights of Labor
first major labor union; skilled workers joined together to protect themselves from their employers. Founder: Samuel Gompers
Nativism
belief that native born Americans were superior, particularly white Protestants; argued to stop immigration; influenced society opinion against immigrants and other races
Americanization
Immigrants should assimilate to American culture; Immigrants were educated in speech, ideals, traditions, and ways of life of an "American"
Great Migration
2 million+ African Americans left the South for the Northeast and Midwest; Reasons: find jobs, escape racism and unfair treatment
Chinese Exclusion Act
1882 - first U.S. law limiting immigration; Reasons: Prejudice against Asians; Asians blamed for unemployment and a decline in pay in California
Jane Addams
(1860-1935) Progressive Era reformer - worked to assist immigrants as founder of the Hull House in Chicago, IL
urbanization
societal shift from farms (rural) to cities (urban)
Dawes Act
American policy that divided Native American lands from the tribe and gave it to individual families; Forced Native American children into schools where their dress and culture was forbidden; sought to assimilate all Native Americans
Jacob Riis
Writer - How the Other Half Lives - Exposed life in the slums of New York City
NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored Persons)
oldest civil rights organization in the United States; sought equality for African Americans; Founder: W.E.B. Du Bois
Eugenics & Social Darwinism
Social theories used to support discrimination
W.E.B. Du Bois
founded the NAACP; believed African Americans should demand: 1) the right to vote, 2) equal laws, and 3) academic education; did not agree with Booker T. Washington
Susan B. Anthony
Most famous and influential advocate for woman's suffrage (right to vote); Died before the 19th amendment passed
Plessy v. Ferguson
a Supreme Court decision that allowed segregation laws as long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal - 1896
segregation
separated; in US History - the separation of people based on racial, ethnic, or other differences
Progressive Age
Gilded Age; a period of social activism and political reform in the United States from the 1890s-1920s.
Booker T. Washington
African American leader who created the Tuskegee Institute, accepted segregation, encouraged blacks to better themselves individually and make money then slowly gain additional human rights
recall, referendum, initiative
political reforms that made government more responsive to voters (constituents)