40 terms

WWI, the Roaring 20s, the Great Depression (1913-1939)

US History STAAR Review
STUDY
PLAY
The Great Gatsby
Novel by F. Scott Fitzgerald about life in the 1920s
1920s Characteristics
Prohibition, jazz, bootleggers, flappers, money
Causes of the Roaring 20s
money, prohibition, music and literature,
Effects of the Roaring 20s
suburbs, modern cities, airplanes, radio, Hollywood, voting for women
Henry Ford
assembly line for the automobile; made cars cheaper, new car for $250
League of Nations
Organization of world nations established in 1920 to promote peace. First suggested by President Woodrow Wilson, but the United States never joined. Held no power, dissolved in 1946.
machine gun
rapidly firing weapon used during WWI that brought the fight to a stand still; one cause of 'trench warfare'
tank
a heavy armored fighting vehicle; broke the stalemate during WWI
President Woodrow Wilson
President during WWI; proposed '14 Points' to end WWI and League of Nations to protect international peace
American Expeditionary Force
U.S. military during WWI
Treaty of Versailles
Peace agreement that ended WWI; harsh penalties for Germany
Reasons for WWI
1. Unrestricted submarine warfare 2. nationalism 3. assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
Archduke Ferdinand
Heir to the throne in Austria-Hungry; his assassination triggered WWI
Battle of Argonne Forest
Final battle of WWI; French and American troops defeated the Germans in France (1918)
Sergeant York
WWI war hero from the Battle of Argonne; received the Medal of Honor
19th Amendment
Allowed women to vote
Susan B. Anthony
most famous suffragette (woman trying to get the right to vote); died before the 19th amendment passed
suffrage
right to vote
prohibition
alcohol is illegal
18th Amendment
Prohibition - alcohol was illegal - 1920
21st Amendment
Repealed prohibition (18th Amendment) - 1933
Great Migration
From 1916 to 1970 millions of African Americans moved from the South to other parts of the US for better opportunities and less racism.
17th Amendment
direct election of U.S. Senators by voters; result of Progressive Era politics
16th Amendment
gave Congress the power to tax personal income; result of Populist politics
Dust Bowl
Heavy winds turned soil to dust in the MidWest; buried homes, destroyed farms, made people sick; 1930s; added to the devastation of the economic depression
Great Depression
started after the stock market crash in 1929; deepest and longest-lasting economic downturn in American history; devastating for most people; widespread poverty and unemployment
Harlem Renaissance
period of growth in African-American art and music and literature; started in Harlem, New York
National Labor Relations Act
Gave workers the right to form a union and work together to bargain with their employers (1935)
Speculation
buying high risk stocks; cause of stock market crash
Teapot Dome Scandal
President Harding - Granted oil-drilling rights on government land in return for money
Red Scare
1919 - Attorney General Mitchell Palmer - Deported immigrants accused of being Communists without a trial. First "Red Scare". Another occurred in the 1950s.
"Return to Normalcy"
President Harding - promise he made during his campaign after World War I.
President Warren Harding
1921-23 - Promised a "return to normalcy"; Administration was full of scandal and corruption, including the Teapot Dome scandal; Died in office (probably a heart attack)
New Deal
President Franklin Roosevelt (FDR); plan to bring economic relief, recovery, and reforms after the Great Depression; Examples: Agriculture Adjustment Act, Civilian Conservation Corps, Works Progress Adminsitration, Tennessee Valley Authority
President Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR)
1933-1945; President for 4 terms; created the New Deal, WWII during his terms, responsible for dramatically growing the U.S. government and the power of the President (Executive branch)
President Herbert Hoover
1929-1933; President of the US during the Great Depression; blamed for the Depression; slums were called "Hoovervilles"
Works Progress Administration (WPA)
New Deal Program. Created jobs for artists.
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
New Deal Program. Young men planted trees, cleaned up forests. They lived in camps and sent money home to families.
Agriculture Adjustment Act
government paid farmers NOT to grow their crops so that prices on those crops went up
supply and demand
economic concept: the price of a good rises and falls depending on how many people want it (demand) and depending on how much of it is available (supply)

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