Physiological Psych Exam 4

An adequate and inadequate stimulus, such as light versus pressure on the eyeball, will create similar experiences because
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In the following diagram of coincidence detectors, which cell would respond most if the sound were directly to the person's left?eOn returning home from the hospital, an elderly neighbor drags one foot when he walks and uses almost exclusively nouns and verbs in his brief sentences. You guess that he has a mild stroke located in hisleft frontal lobeMost researchers agree that dyslexia is primarily a problem ofphonological processingEvidence providing some support for a language acquisition device comes from studies showing that American Sign Language activatesthe left hemisphereThe most reasonable conclusion regarding language in animals is thatsome animals have brain structures similar to human language structuresThe role of mirror neurons in language development is supposedly in theinitiation of gestures and mouth actionsCh. 10The receptive field of a cell in the visual system is a part of the ________ from which the cell receives its inputretinaMixing red and green lights produces a sensation of yellow because red-sensitive and green-sensitive conesexcite yellow/blue ganglion cellsIf our experience of color were entirely due to wavelength of light reflected from an object, we would not experiencecolor constancyThe parvocellular system is specialized forcolor and fine detailWhat would be the effect on vision if there was a problem with your horizontal cellsImpaired edge detection in the Mach band illusionCutting the optic between the right eye and the chiasm would cause a loss of vision inhalf of each visual fieldPeople with red-green color blindnessconfuse red and green because they lack one of the photopigmentsA light edge has enhanced apparent brightness next to a dark edge because the neurons stimulated by the light edge are inhibitedless by their "dark" neighborsThe ability of complex visual cortical cells to track an edge as it changes position appears to be due toinput from simple cells with similar fieldsAccording to spatial frequency theory of visual processing, edges are detected bycells that respond to high spatial frequenciesThe circles represent the receptive field of a ganglion cell; the rectangle represents light. Unlike the illustrations in this chapter, the receptive field has an off center. In which situation will the ganglion cells' rate of firing be the greatestbStudies of object, color, and movement agnosias indicate thatcomponents of the visual image are processed separatelyMovement perception is the primary function in visual areaV5A person who has trouble identifying objects visually probably has damage in thetemporal lobeCh. 11Proprioception gives us information aboutthe position and the movement of our limbs and bodyThe skins senses includetouch, warmth, cold, and painSharp pain and dull pain are primarily due topain neurons with different characteristicsAccording to Melzack and Wall, pressing the skin around the wound reduces pain bytriggering inhibition in the pain pathwayEndorphinsactivate the same receptors as opiate drugsBoth congenital pain insensitivity and chronic pain involvegene-mediated alterations of pain sensitivityResearch suggests that phantom pain is due toneural reorganization in the somatosensory areaWithout a posterior parietal cortex, we would be most impaired inorienting movements to objects in spaceIf the nerves providing sensory feedback from the legs were cut, we wouldhave trouble standing uprightA monkey is presented a stimulus and then must wait a few seconds before it can reach to the correct stimulus. Activity in the secondary motor area during the delay suggests that this areaprepares for the movementCells in the premotor cortex would be particularly involved when youcatch a fly ballThe primary motor cortex is most involved inexecuting movementsThe basal ganglia and the cerebellum produceno movementsParkinson's disease is characterized most bydeterioration of the dopamine-releasing systemResults of removing the thymus gland suggest that myasthenia gravis is a(n) ____________ diseaseautoimmuneCh.12Anterograde amnesia means that the patient has trouble remembering events that occurredsince the brain damageIf you are positive you know what the 14th President of the U.S. is, but cannot remember at this very moment, you are having a problem withretrievalThe main neurotransmitter implicated in memory formation isdopamineIf HM's striatum had also been damaged, he would also not have rememberedskills learned after his surgeryIN the course of adding a long column in your checkbook, you have to carry a 6 to the next column. If you forget the number in the process, you're having a problem withworking memoryThe researcher sounds a tone then delivers puff of air to your eye. After several times, the tone alone causes you to blink. This behavior is probably explained byLTDSynaptic changes during learning involveall of the aboveWhen do most of the genes involved in memory consolidation increase their activitiesduring sleepMemories are vulnerable to the insertion of "false facts" through suggestions or ideas that fill in the gaps. This usually occurs during the process ofreconsolidationWhen researchers injected anisomycin, which blocks protein synthesis, into the brains of mice two weeks after fear conditioning the results demonstrated thatmemories are especially vulnerable during recallThe aging brain is characterized by substantial ___________ throughout the cortexnone of the aboveAlzheimer's disease is most closely associated withplaques and tanglesThe feature most common between Alzheimer's disease and Korsakoff's syndrome is thesymptoms