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Neuromuscular System and Exercise
Terms in this set (63)
In response to internal and external stimuli, bits of sensory input are automatically and rapidly routed, organized, and transmitted to the muscles via the _________.
peripheral nervous system (cranial and spinal nerves)
The cerebrum contains the two cerebral hemispheres, ________, which control higher level functions like thought, intelligence, and problem-solving.
the corpus striatum, and the medulla
There are two bands of nerve cells on top of the cerebral cortex.
These two bands are separated by the ______.
One band, the _______, triggers our movements.
The other band, the _______, processes sensory information from the body.
The _______ is a large tract of nerve fibers that crosses this gap, connecting the two hemispheres so they can communicate.
The ______ regulates functions ranging from metabolism, appetite, and body temperature.
The ______ is the major comparing, evaluating, and integrating center that provides the "fine-tuning" for muscular activities.
The cerebellum receives signals from the _______ in the muscles, tendons, joints, and skin as well as the visual, auditory, and vestibular organs (eyes & ears).
cerebral cortex and sensory information from receptors
The bony skull and a composite of four tough membranes (meninges), which contain a jelly-like, cushioning substance (cerebrospinal fluid), surround the brain to protect it from injury.
The spinal cord (about 45 cm long and 1 cm in diameter) is encased by __ vertebrae.
_____ pairs of peripheral nerves exit the cord through small holes (foramen) at the juncture between each pair of vertebrae.
_______ within the spinal cord transmit sensory information from peripheral sensory receptors to the brain for interpretation.
Ascending nerve tracts
Descending Nerve Tracts
Tracts of nerve tissue descend from the brain to influence neurons in the spinal cord.
The ______ neurons originate in the cerebral cortex and provide for discrete muscular movements through connections with alpha (a) motoneurons.
Neurons in the _______, which originate in the brain stem, control posture and provide a continual background level of neuromuscular tone based upon sensory feedback from the antigravity muscles.
Nerves communicate by releasing at their terminal ends chemical messengers called _______ that diffuse across the synapse, or junction between one nerve end and the cell body of another nerve.
The neurotransmitter combines with a targeted receptor molecule on the postsynaptic membrane to facilitate _______, or in some instances, hyperpolarization.
Many of the neurons in the CNS, particularly in the brain, release or respond to these neurotransmitters.
epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin, histamine, dopamine
arginine, vasopressin, angiotensin II, enkephalins, endorphins
______ is the principal neurotransmitter used in autonomic and somatic motor neurons.
The PNS includes _______ that relay sensory information from muscles, joints, skin, and bones toward the CNS.
_______ that transmit information away from the CNS to glands and muscles.
The somatic and autonomic nervous systems consist of _______.
efferent (motor) neurons
Autonomic nervous system efferent nerves activate the viscera and other tissues on the _______.
These nerves innervate smooth (involuntary) muscle in the intestines, sweat and salivary glands, myocardium, and some endocrine glands.
The ______ system innervates skeletal muscle (voluntary striated muscle).
_____ firing excites (disinhibits) muscle activation.
Somatic efferent nerve
Whereas ______ firing can either excite or inhibit activation.
Although the ANS functions as a unit to maintain constancy in the internal environment, two distinct divisions exist: _______.
sympathetic and parasympathetic
______ supply the heart, smooth muscle, sweat glands and viscera through nerve endings that release norepinephrine.
Sympathetic nerve fibers
Sympathetic nerve fibers supply the heart, smooth muscle, sweat glands and viscera through nerve endings that release ________.
Excitation of the sympathetic nervous system occurs during ______ situations, requiring whole body arousal for emergencies.
"fight or flight"
_______ stimulation accelerates breathing and heart rate instantaneously; the pupils dilate; and blood flows from the skin to deeper tissues in anticipation of a perceived challenge.
The _______, comprised of a single anterior motoneuron and the specific muscle fibers it innervates, represents the functional unit of movement.
protein composing the thick myofilaments of the muscle fiber
protein composing the thin myofilaments of the muscle fiber
protein which regulates the interactions between actin and myosin
neural transmitter responsible for synaptic transmission of the action potential
proprioceptor which responds to changes in muscle length and tension
mineral which activates troponin, uncovering the actin binding sites
strong, flexible, inelastic fibrous tissue band that attaches muscle to bone
the outer membrane of the muscle
the simplest type of nerve pathway
a structure consisting of a motor neuron and the muscle fibers it innervates
branching process which conducts neural impulses toward the cell body
extension of a neuron that conducts impulses away from the cell body
interface between the myelinated motoneuron and the muscle fiber
the largest and uppermost section of the brain, divided into hemisphere
muscle fiber which fatigues rapidly and generates energy anaerobically
muscle fiber which resists fatigue and generates energy aerobically
the part of the brain concerned with coordinating voluntary muscular activity
segmented, fatty lamination that wraps the axons of many nerves
The reflex arc is the simplest type of nerve pathway and provides the basic mechanism for processing automatic muscular movements.
As exercise effort intensifies, progressively more fast twitch fibers are recruited to meet the need.
If a stimulus is strong enough to trigger an action potential in the motoneuron, all the accompany muscle fibers in the motor unit will contract in unison.
A motor unit consists of a single muscle fiber and all the motoneurons that innervate it.
Motor units that contract rapidly and with great force tend to fatigue rapidly as well.
Muscles which perform intricate movements require a relatively small fiber to neuron ration as compared to muscles which exhibit gross movements.
The neuromuscular junction is the interface between the axon of the myelinated motoneuron and the sacrolemma of the muscle fiber.
The ratio of muscle fibers to nerve generally relates to a muscle's particular movement function.
A ________ can innervate many muscle fibers because the terminal end of an axon forms numerous branches.
A muscle fiber, in contrast, receives stimulation from only one neuron.
single motor nerve
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