Psych 110 - Unit 3 (chapters 8-12)

Branch of psychology that focuses on the study of higher mental processes.
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Terms in this set (242)
Judging the probability of an event occurring on the basis of how easy it is to think of and remember examples - We assume that events we remember easily are likely to have occurred more frequently in the past and are more likely to occur in the future than events that are harder to rememberAvailability HeuristicLeads us to prefer familiar objects, people, and things to those that are unfamiliar or strand to us - This heuristic typically saves us a great deal of time, since we often just go with what seems most familiar. However, we may reach inaccurate conclusions if we settle on the most familiar characteristicsFamiliarity HeuristicThe tendency to more heavily weigh options that are closer to the present than ones further away. - Ex. Given a choice between receiving $150 today or $180 a month from now. If you're like most people, you'll probably choose the $150 today.Present BiasThe field that examines how to use technology to imitate human thinking, problem solving, and creative activitiesArtificial IntelligenceToday, artificial intelligence uses _________________________. - Processes immense amounts of data and makes probabilistic guesses.Machine LearningPsychologists have found that problem solving typically involves three steps: 1. _____________________ 2. _____________________ 3. _____________________1. Preparing to create solutions; 2. Producing solutions; and 3. Judging and Evaluating the solutions that have been generatedNature of the problem and the information needed to solve are available and clear.Well-Defined ProblemNature of the problem and the information needed to solve are unclear.Ill-Defined ProblemRequire the problem solver to rearrange elements in a way that will satisfy a certain criterionArrangement ProblemsPerson must identify the existing relationships among the elements presented and then construct a new relationship among them.Problems of Inducing StructureConsist of an initial state, a goal state, and a method for changing the initial state into the goal stateTransformation ProblemsThe way in which we represent a problem - and the solution we eventually come to - depends on the way a problem is _______________.PhrasedTrying a variety of solutions and eliminating those that don't workTrial and ErrorA strategy in which a problem solver considers the ultimate goal (the end) and determines the best strategy (the means) for attaining the goal. - Each step brings the problem solver closer to the resolutionMeans-Ends AnalysisAnother heuristic commonly used is to divide a problem into ______________, and then solve each of those steps.subgoalsSudden awareness of the relationships among various elements that had previously appeared to be unrelated to one another.InsightWho examined learning and problem-solving processes in chimpanzees?Wolfgang KöhlerExamining biases in decision making has influenced the development of a new field known as ________________________Behavioral EconomicsTendency to think of an object only in terms of its typical use.Functional FixednessThe tendency to solve problems in a certain way, based on past experience - Hinders our ability to come up with other solutionsMental SetTendency to seek out and weight more heavily information that supports one's initial hypothesis and to ignore contradictory information that supports alternative hypotheses or solutions.Confirmation BiasWhy does Confirmation bias occur?- Rethinking a problem that appears to be solved already takes extra cognitive effort - Tendency to give greater weight to subsequent information that supports the initial position, compared to information that is not supportive of the initial positionAbility to generate original ideas or solve problems in novel waysCreativityThinking that generates unusual, yet appropriate, responses to problems or questionsDivergent ThinkingThinking in which a problem is viewed as having a single answer.Convergent ThinkingPreference for elaborate, intricate, and complex stimuli and thinking patterns.Cognitive ComplexityCommunication of information through symbols arranged according to systematic rules.LanguageNoises made by children ages 0-6 monthsCooingMeaningless speech-like sounds made by children. - From around the age of 3 months through 1 yearBabbleSystem of rules that determine how our thoughts can be expressedGrammarStudy of the smallest units of speech called phonemesPhonologyThe smallest units of speech; speech soundsPhonemesWays in which words and phrases can be combined to form sentences - Ex. "TV down the turn" vs. "Turn down the TV"SyntaxThe aspect of language referring to the meaning of words and sentences - Ex. Boy and man share certain semantic features (both refer to males), but they also differ semantically (in terms of age)SemanticsSentences in which only essential words are usedTelegraphic SpeechThe phenomenon by which children over-apply a language rule, thereby making a linguistic error - Ex. "runned"OvergeneralizationLanguage acquisition follows the principles of reinforcement and conditioningLearning-Theory ApproachHumans are biologically pre-wired to learn language at certain times and in particular waysNativist ApproachLinguist Noam Chomsky proposed a ______________________ that lets us understand the structure language providesUniversal GrammarThe view that language development is determined by genetic and social factors, produced through a combination of genetically determined predispositions and the social world in which one is raisedInteractionist ApproachHypothesis that states that language shapes and may determine the way people perceive and understand the worldLinguistic-Relativity HypothesisThe capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and use resources effectively when faced with challengesIntelligenceThe single, general factor for mental ability assumed to underlie intelligence in some early theories of intelligence.g-factorReflects the ability to think logically, reason abstractly, solve problems, and find patterns.Fluid IntelligenceThe accumulation of information, knowledge, and skills that people have learned through experience and education.Crystallized IntelligenceThe differences between fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence become especially evident in late adulthood. At that point in the life span, people show ______________ in fluid, but not crystallized intelligence.DeclinesPsychologist Howard Gardner's intelligence theory that proposed there are eight distinct spheres of intelligenceTheory of Multiple IntelligencesThere may be more than eight, such as _____________________________ - involving identifying and thinking about the fundamental questions of human existenceExistential IntelligenceSkills in tasks involving music.Musical IntelligenceSkills in using the whole body or various portions of it in the solution of problems or in the construction of products or displays, exemplified by dancers, athletes, actors, and surgeonsBodily Kinesthetic IntelligenceSkills in problem solving and scientific thinkingLogical-Mathematical IntelligenceSkills involved in the production and use of languageLinguistic IntelligenceSkills involving spatial configurations, such as those used by artists and architectsSpatial IntelligenceSkills in interacting with others, such as sensitivity to the moods, temperaments, motivations, and intentions of others.Interpersonal IntelligenceKnowledge of the internal aspects of oneself; access to one's own feelings and emotions.Intrapersonal IntelligenceNaturalist IntelligenceAbility to identify and classify patterns in nature.What kind of methods have identified several areas of the brain that relate to intelligenceBrain-Scanning MethodsThe ______________________________ is critical to juggling many pieces of information simultaneously and solving new problems.Lateral Prefrontal CortexHigher intelligence is related to the __________________ of the cerebral cortexThicknessWhat is Robert Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Intelligence?- Practical Intelligence - Analytical Intelligence - Creative IntelligenceIntelligence related to overall success in living.Practical IntelligenceFocuses on the traditional types of problems measured on IQ testsAnalytical IntelligenceInvolves the generation of novel ideas and productsCreative IntelligenceA set of skills that underlie the accurate assessment, evaluation, expression, and regulation of emotions.Emotional IntelligenceTests devised to quantify a person's level of intelligenceIntelligence Tests_______________________ was motivated to identify people of high intelligence, which stemmed from personal prejudices that people of high social class (including himself) were naturally superior due to their inherited intelligenceFrancis GaltonFrench psychologist _________________ developed the first real intelligence test.Alfred BinetAge for which a given level of performance is average.Mental Age (MA)Physical age; age since birth.Chronological Age (CA)Takes into account an individual's mental age (MA) and chronological age (CA)Intelligence Quotient (IQ)Consists of a series of items that vary according to the age of the person being tested.Stanford-Binet Intelligence ScaleThe IQ tests most frequently used in the U.S. were devised by psychologist ___________________David WechslerWhat do the WAIS and WISC measure?- Verbal comprehension; - Perceptual reasoning; - Working memory; and - Processing SpeedA disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills - Communication skills, Self-care, Ability to live independently, Social skills, Community involvement, Self-direction, Health & Safety, Academics, Leisure & WorkIntellectual Disability___________ = IQ of 55 to 69, constituting 90% of all people with intellectual disabilitiesMild___________ = IQ of 40 to 54Moderate___________ = IQ of 25 to 39Severe___________ = IQ below 25ProfoundThe most common cause of intellectual disability in newborns, occurring when the mother uses alcohol during pregnancy.Fetal Alcohol SyndromeAnother major cause, in which a person is born with 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46.Down syndromeIntellectual disability in which no apparent biological or genetic problem exists, but there is a history of intellectual disability among family members.Familial Intellectual DisabilityWhat public law was passed stating that people with intellectual disabilities are entitled to a full education.The Education for All Handicapped Children ActIntegration into regular classroomsMainstreamingThe interaction of students with and without intellectual disabilities in regular classrooms will improve educational opportunities for those with intellectual disabilities, increase their social acceptance, and facilitate their integration into society as a whole.Mainstreaming PhilosophyTotal integration of all students, even those with the most severe intellectual disabilities, into regular classesFull InclusionThe 2% to 4% segment of the population who have IQ scores greater than 130.Intellectually GiftedA test that does not discriminate against the members of any minority group.Culture-Fair IQ TestThe degree to which a characteristic is related to genetic, inherited factors.HeritabilityThe average person today gets more items correct on IQ tests than the average person did several generations ago.Flynn EffectFactors that direct and energize the behavior of humans and other organisms. - Includes behavioral, cognitive, and social aspectsMotivationThe inborn patterns of behavior that are biologically determined rather than learned.InstinctsThe explanation of motivation that suggests people and animals are born preprogrammed with sets of behaviors essential to survival.Instinct approaches to motivationTheories suggesting that a lack of some basic biological need produces a drive to push an organism to satisfy that need.Drive-Reduction Approaches to MotivationMotivational tension, or arousal, that energizes behavior to fulfill a need.DriveDrive that is related to biological needs of the body or of the species as a wholePrimary DrivesDrive that is related to behavior that fulfills no obvious biological need.Secondary DrivesThe body's tendency to maintain a steady internal state.HomeostasisThe belief that people try to maintain a steady level of stimulation and activity.Arousal Approaches to MotivationThese approaches suggest that if stimulation and activity levels become too high, we try to _________________; and if stimulation and activity levels become too low, we seek out ways to _________________.reduce them; increase themTheories suggesting that motivation stems from the desire to attain external rewards known as Incentives.Incentive Approaches to MotivationThe internal drive proposed by Drive-Reduction TheoryPushThe external incentives of Incentive TheoryPullTheories suggesting that motivation is a result of people's thoughts, beliefs, expectations, and goals.Cognitive Approaches to MotivationCauses individuals to participate in an activity for their own enjoyment rather than for any actual or concrete reward.Intrinsic MotivationCauses individuals to do something for money, a grade, or some other actual, concrete reward.Extrinsic MotivationPsychologist _________________________ proposed a model of motivation that places motivational needs in a hierarchy.Abraham MaslowA state of self-fulfillment in which people realize their highest potential in their own way.Self-ActualizationWhy is Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs important?- Highlights the complexity of human needs. - Emphasizes that until basic biological needs are met, people will be unconcerned about higher-order needs. - Spawned other approaches to motivation, including Self-Determination Theory - the idea that people have three basic needs: Competence, Autonomy, and RelatednessPeople and animals are born with preprogrammed sets of behaviors essential to their survivalInstinctWhen some basic biological requirement is lacking, a drive is producedDrive ReductionPeople seek optimal level of stimulation. If the level of stimulation is too high, they act to reduce it; if it is too low, they act to increase it.ArousalExternal rewards direct and energize behaviorIncentiveThoughts, beliefs, expectations, and goals direct motivationCognitiveNeeds form a hierarchy; before higher-order needs are met, lower-order needs must be fulfilled.Hierarchy of needsFeelings that generally have both physiological and cognitive elements and that influence behavior.EmotionsSome psychologists argue there are two systems at work, one governing _____________ responses to a given situation and the other governing the _____________ reactions to them.Emotional; CognitiveBeyond making life interesting, emotions perform several important functions in our daily lives:- Preparing us for action. - Shaping our future behavior. - Helping us interact more effectively with others.What are the basic emotions?- happiness - anger - fear - sadness - disgustEmotions are Accompanied by _______________________________General Physical ReactionsEmotional experience is a reaction to bodily events occurring as a result of an external situation; proposed by William James and Carl Lange.James-Lange Theory of EmotionBoth physiological arousal and emotional experience are produced simultaneously by the same nerve stimulus; proposed by Walter Cannon and later Philip Bard.Cannon-Bard Theory of EmotionThe _______________ sends responses to the autonomic nervous system and the cortex.ThalamusEmotions are determined by a nonspecific kind of physiological arousal and its interpretation, based on environmental cues; proposed by Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer. - Supports a cognitive view of emotionThe Schachter-Singer Theory of EmotionThe _________________ plays an important role in the experience of emotions. - Provides a link between the perception of an emotion-producing stimulus and the recall of that stimulus later.AmygdalaThe theory that a set of nerve impulses produce a facial display reflective of an emotion that is universal across cultures.Facial-Affect ProgramThe hypothesis that facial expressions not only reflect emotional experience but also help determine how people experience and label emotionsFacial-Feedback HypothesisThe issue of the degree to which environment and heredity influence behavior.Nature-Nurture IssueThe branch of psychology that studies the patterns of growth and change that occur throughout life.Development PsychologyWho study the effects of heredity on behavior — and the theories of evolutionary psychologists?Behavioral GeneticistsA research method that compares people of different ages at the same point in time. - The differences among groups of people.Cross-Sectional ResearchA research method that investigates behavior as participants age. - Assesses changes in behavior over time.Longitudinal ResearchA new cell formed by the union of an egg and sperm.ZygoteThe first 2 weeks of pregnancy are known as the ____________________.Germinal PeriodWeek 2 through week 8 of pregnancy is known as the ____________________.Embryonic PeriodA developed zygote that has a heart, a brain, and other organs. - Organs are clearly recognizable, despite being at a primitive stage of developmentEmbryoWeek 8 until birth is the ________________Fetal PeriodA developing individual from 8 weeks after conception until birth.FetusThe point at which a fetus can survive if born prematurely — at about prenatal age 22 weeks.Age of ViabilityInfants that are born before week 38.Preterm InfantsIn ___% to ___% of births, the children have serious defects.2% to 5%disease that cannot produce an enzyme required for normal developmentPhenylketonuria (PKU)Abnormally shaped red blood cells; may be passed on by about 10% of the African American population.Sickle-Cell AnemiaUsually die by age 3 or 4 because of the body's inability to break down fat; most often found in Jews of Eastern European ancestry.Tay-Sachs DiseaseA cause of intellectual disability in which the zygote receives an extra chromosome; increased risk with mothers who are over 35.Down syndromeEnvironmental agents such as a drug, chemical, virus, other factors that produce a birth defect.TeratogensAmong the major prenatal environmental influences are:- Mother's nutrition; - Mother's illness; - Mother's emotional state; - Mother's use of drugs, alcohol, and/or nicotineA newborn childNeonateUnlearned, involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuli.ReflexesTurning of the head toward things that touch their cheeksRooting ReflexPrompts infants to suck at things that touch their lips.Sucking ReflexClearing of the throat.Gag ReflexA series of movements in response to a sudden noise.Startle ReflexFanning out of the toes when the foot is stroked.Babinski ReflexThe positive emotional bond that develops between a child and a particular individual.AttachmentWho studied attachment with newborn goslingsKonrad LorenzKonrad Lorenz labeled the process of __________________ -- behavior that takes place during a critical period and involves attachment to the first moving object observed.ImprintingWho studied attachment with infant monkeys?Harry HarlowWho devised a method of measuring attachment.Mary AinsworthA sequence of events involving a child and (typically) his or her mother. - Securely Attached Children - Avoidant Children - Ambivalent Children - Disorganized-Disoriented ChildrenAinsworth Strange SituationChildren who employ the mother as a kind of home base; they explore independently but return to her occasionally. When she leaves, they exhibit distress, and they go to her when she returnsSecurely Attached ChildrenChildren who do not cry when the mother leaves, and they seem to avoid her when she returns as if they were indifferent to her.Avoidant ChildrenChildren who display anxiety before they are separated and are upset when the mother leaves, but they may show ambivalent reactions to her return, such as seeking close contact but simultaneously hitting and kicking her.Ambivalent ChildrenChildren who show inconsistent and often contradictory behavior. For example, they may approach their mother but do so avoiding eye contact or otherwise acting in an inappropriate way.Disorganized-Disoriented ChildrenWho identified the four main categories in parenting styles? - Authoritarian - Permissive - Authoritative - UninvolvedDian BaumrindParents who are rigid and punitive and value unquestioning obedience from their children.Authoritarian ParentsParents who give their children relaxed or inconsistent direction and, although they are warm, require little of them.Permissive ParentsParents who are firm, set clear limits, reason with their children, and explain things to them.Authoritative ParentsParents who show little interest in their children and are emotionally detached.Uninvolved ParentsA basic, inborn characteristic way of responding and behavioral style.TemperamentChildren also vary considerably in their degree of _________________ — the ability to overcome circumstances that place children at high risk for psychological or even physical harm.ResilienceWho developed the eight stages of psychosocial development?Erik EriksonThe development of individuals' interactions and understanding of each other and of their knowledge and understanding of themselves as members of society.Psychosocial DevelopmentInfants between birth to age develop feelings of trust or lack of trust.Trust vs Mistrust StageToddlers ages to 3 develop independence and autonomy if exploration and freedom are encouraged; or shame and self-doubt if they are restricted and overprotected.Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt StageChildren aged 3 to 6 experience conflict between independence of action and the sometimes negative results of that action.Initiative vs. Guilt StageChildren aged 6 to 12 may develop positive social interactions with others or may feel inadequate and become less social.Industry vs Inferiority StageThe process by which a child's understanding of the world changes as a function of age and experience.Cognitive DevelopmentWho suggested children proceed through a series of four stages in a fixed order?Jean PiagetThe stage from birth to 2 years, during which a child has little competence in representing the environment by using images, language, or other symbols.Sensorimotor StageBabies lack ____________________: an awareness that objects — and people — continue to exist even if they are out of sight.Object PermanenceThe period from 2 to 7 years of age that is characterized by language development.Preoperational StageA way of thinking in which a child views the world entirely from his or her own perspective.Egocentric ThoughtThe knowledge that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objects.Principle of ConservationThe period from 7 to 12 years of age that is characterized by logical thought and a loss of egocentrism. - Their thinking is, however, largely bound to the concrete, physical reality of the world.Concrete Operational StageThe period from age 12 to adulthood that is characterized by abstract thought. - It appears that many individuals never reach this stage at all.Formal Operational StageThe way in which people take in, use, and store information.Information ProcessingAn awareness and understanding of one's own cognitive processes.MetacognitionWho stated that cognitive development occurs as a consequence of social interactions?Lev VygotskyThe gap between what children already are able to accomplish on their own and what they are not quite ready to do by themselves.Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)Support for learning and problem solving that encourages independence and growth.ScaffoldingThe developmental stage between children and adulthood.AdolescenceThe period of which maturation of the sexual organs occurs, beginning at about age 11 or 12 for girls and 12 or 14 for boys.PubertyWhen does puberty start for girls?When menstruation startsWhen does puberty start for boys?Their first ejaculation, formally known as spermarches, typically happens at the beginning of puberty.Who states that changes in moral reasoning can be understood best as a three-level sequence? - Preconventional morality; - Conventional morality; and - Postconventional moralityLawrence KohlbergThe main considerations are the avoidance of punishment and the desire for rewards.Preconventional MoralityMembership in society becomes important; people behave in ways that will win the approval of others.Conventional MoralityPeople accept that there are certain broad principles of morality that should govern our actions; and these principles are more critical than the particular laws in a society.Postconventional MoralityAnother shortcoming of Kohlberg's research is that he primarily used _____________________.Male ParticipantsWhat psychologist argues that because o their different socialization, men and women view moral behavior differently?Carol GilliganHow do men view moral behavior?Men view it primarily in terms of broad principles, such as justice and fairnessHow do women view moral behavior?Women see it in terms of responsibility towards others and a willingness to make sacrifices — a morality of caring.The distinguishing character of the individual: who each of us is, what our roles are, and what we are capable of.IdentityAccording to Erikson, a time in adolescence of major testing to determine one's unique qualities.Identity vs Role Confusion StageA period during early adulthood that focuses on developing close relationships.Intimacy vs Isolation StageA period in middle adulthood during which we take stock of our contributions to family and society.Generativity vs Stagnation stageA period from late adulthood until death during which we review life's accomplishments and failures.Ego Integrity vs Despair StageThe state of self-absorption in which a teenager views the world from his or her own point of view.Adolescent EgocentrismAdolescents also develop ______________________ — the belief that one's experiences are unique, exceptional, and shared by no one else.Personal FablesThe period beginning in the late teenage years and extending into the mid-twenties.Emerging AdulthoodFor most people, early adulthood marks the peak of _____________________. - The body becomes slightly less efficient and more susceptible to disease.Physical HealthGradual changes become more evident in __________________________.. - These signs of aging can be psychologically challenging in a society that highly values youth.Middle AdulthoodThe period when women stop menstruating and are no longer fertile, usually in the late 40s or early 50sMenopauseThe period when people may begin to question their lives. - The idea that life will end at some point can become more influential in their thinking. - Although some suggest physical aging and dissatisfaction with one's life mark a "midlife crisis," there is little evidence for such a "crisis."Midlife TransitionOf first marriages, ____% end in divorce.39%Our DNA genetic code includes a built-in time limit to the reproduction of human cells and that they are no longer able to divide after a certain time.Genetic Preprogramming Theories of AgingThe mechanical function functions of the body simply stop working efficientlyWear-and-Tear Theories of AgingSkills relating to ________________________ (information-processing skills) typically show declines in late adulthood.Fluid IntelligenceSkills relating to ________________________ (accumulated knowledge) remain steady and in some cases improve.Crystallized IntelligenceIn the past, older adults with severe cases of memory decline accompanied by other cognitive difficulties were said to suffer from ________________.SenilityA progressive brain disorder that leads to a gradual and irreversible decline in cognitive abilities.Alzheimer's DiseaseSuccessful aging is characterized by a gradual withdrawal from the world on physical, psychological, and social levels.Disengagement Theory of AgingSuccessful aging is characterized by maintaining the interests and activities of earlier stages of life.Activity Theory of AgingThe process by which people examine and evaluate their livesLife ReviewWho proposed the five stages of adjusting to death?Elisabeth Kübler-RossWhat are the five stages of adjusting to death?- Denial - Anger - Bargaining - Depression - AcceptanceIn this stage, people resist the idea that they are dying. Even if told that their chances for survival are small, they refuse to admit that they are facing death.DenialIn this stage, dying people become angry -- angry at people around them who are in good health, angry at medical professionals for being ineffective, angry at God.AngerIn this stage, the person tries to think of ways to postpone death. They may decide to dedicate their lives to religion if God saves them. They may say "if I can only live to see my son married, I will accept death then"BargainingIn this stage, the person realizes that their lives are coming to an end, which leads to what is known as "preparatory grief" for their own deaths.DepressionIn this stage, people accept impending death. Usually they are unemotional and uncommunicative; it is as if they have made peace with themselves and are expecting death with no bitterness.AcceptanceBeyond making life interesting, emotions perform several important functions in our daily lives:- Preparing us for action. - Shaping our future behavior. Helping us interact more effectively with others.