D270 Chapter 2

________ consists of specific learned norms based on attitudes, values, and beliefs of a group of people.
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Which of the following is NOT true about cultural diversity?
A) Companies may gain competitive advantages by bringing together people of diverse backgrounds.
B) Cultural diversity is most successful when domestic and foreign firms establish joint ventures.
C) Cultural diversity may help a company gain deeper knowledge about products and services.
D) The process of bringing people of different national cultures together is often difficult.
Because people can be grouped or classified in many ways, such as on the basis of nationality, ethnicity, religion, profession, and income level, ________.
A) people live in a state of cultural collision
B) cultural studies fail to understand behaviors
C) identity crises make individual's lives chaotic
D) people have more than one cultural group membership
Which of the following best describes a result of cultural collision in international business?A) A company implements practices that are less effective than intended.
B) Local employees are overlooked for promotions by home country managers.
C) Expatriate managers rely too heavily on local employees for negotiating business deals.
D) Foreign and domestic companies make adjustments for the local culture and legal environment.
Which of the following is the most accurate statement about culture? A) Cultural variables can easily be isolated from other factors such as economic and political conditions.
B) Although most cultural variables are universal, the forms these variables take differ from culture to culture.
C) Most cultural variables are superficial and can easily be influenced by environmental factors.
D) Within a culture, everyone responds to particular cultural variables the same way.
Businesspeople seeking to understand more about another culture in order to successfully conduct business within that culture would be best advised to do which of the following?
A) observing the behavior of people who have gained respect within that cultural environment
B) relying on stereotypes, which are based on averages, to gain an understanding of the culture
C) avoiding cultural research studies because they perpetuate unjustified stereotypes and behaviors
D) memorizing the cultural variations that are typically encountered in a specific cultural environment
Which of the following is a common shortcoming of studies examining culture in different countries and regions?
A) Cultures are static, which leads researchers to draw false conclusions from old data.
B) It is impossible to compare countries because of differences in data.
C) Responses are reported in averages, which can lead to a belief in unrealistic stereotypes.
D) People are reluctant to complain about their own cultures, so they present only positive opinions to researchers.
The nation offers a workable reference for studying cultural differences because ________.
A) a nation contains only one distinct culture
B) similarity among people is both a cause and effect of national boundaries
C) the commonality of language within a nation eases the process of conducting surveys
D) different groups within the same country always have more in common with each other than with groups in other countries
A problem of using the nation as a reference point for culture is that ________.
A) nations fail to mediate the different interests within their boundaries
B) self-stereotypes tend to fall along national lines
C) such an approach tends to be polycentric
D) variations tend to be great within a country
Certain attitudes can link groups, such as managers, from different nations more closely than managers with labor within a given nation. As a result, international businesspeople should most likely ________. A) assume that there are few significant cultural differences among nations B) examine relevant groups when comparing nations C) adopt universal operating methods D) avoid cultural imperialismBIt is most accurate to say that within most nation's borders, people largely share such essential attributes as ________ and ________. A) work attitudes; occupations B) lifestyles; education level C) education level; ethnicity D) values; languageDMost people's basic value system is ________. A) modified significantly between childhood and adulthood B) altered during adulthood through the imposition C) affected primarily by teenage peer pressure D) acquired mainly during early childhoodDContact among countries brings about cultural change, which is a process called ________.Cultural DiffusionCreolization refers to ________. A) government efforts to maintain a distinct cultural identity through legislation and language B) the process of mixing elements of an outside culture with those of a national culture C) the use of stereotypes to describe a culture D) changes as cultures evolve over timeBCultural change imposed by an alien culture is called ________.Cultural ImperialismWhich of the following languages has the most native speakers? A) English B) Mandarin C) Spanish D) HindiB________ peoples account for the largest percentage of global production. A) English-speaking B) Mandarin-speaking C) French-speaking D) Spanish-speakingAWhich of the following statements about the English language is most likely NOT true? A) The largest portion of global output is in English-speaking countries. B) A large portion of MNEs are headquartered in English-speaking countries. C) English is the official national language in most countries where FDI is encouraged. D) Many MNEs from non-English speaking countries use English as their operating language.CAlthough English is referred to as the "international language of business,"________. A) it is less frequently used than French in international business B) there is a growing disagreement over which version of English to use, e.g. British, American, or Australian C) companies headquartered outside English-speaking countries all use their official language as their operating language D) monolingual English speakers may experience more difficulty in the future in communicating on a worldwide basisInternational businesspeople need to understand social stratification systems where they do business because ________. A) such systems reflect a culture's willingness to accept new products B) such systems indicate who people in a given culture will likely respect more C) the high similarity among countries lets firms effectively use global hiring practices D) what is an ascribed group membership in one country is an acquired one in anotherBWhich of the following is an example of an acquired group membership? A) national origin B) religion C) gender D) raceBThe more closed a society is, the more important ________ group membership is. A) acquired B) age-based C) education D) ascribedDStudies indicate a strong correlation between the intensity of religious belief and ________. A) a desire to convert productivity gains into more leisure time B) an adherence to some attributes that lead to economic growth C) the belief that material success is related to salvation D) the degree of ethnocentrism exhibited in a cultureBAccording to the theory of success and reward expectation, the greatest enthusiasm for work generally occurs when there is a ________ certainty of success combined with a ________ reward for success compared to the reward for failure. A) high; high B) high; low C) low; high D) low; lowCThe term "________ culture" describes a country in which the norm is a money-and-things orientation and a belief that it's better to "live to work" than to "work to live." A) high masculinity B) physiological C) non-fatalistic D) high-femininityABased on the hierarchy-of-needs theory, in which of the following would fulfillment of lower-order needs be the best motivator? A) wealthy countries B) Protestant countries C) high femininity countries D) very poor countriesDPeople generally prefer little consultation between superiors and subordinates in cultures where ________ is high. A) power distance B) fatalism C) individualism D) self-actualizationAWhich of the following is characterized by low dependence on an organization and a desire for personal time, freedom, and challenges? A) collectivism B) democracy C) individualism D) anarchyCAssume a firm has operations in Tokyo, where there is a collectivist culture. Which of the following would most likely motivate the firm's Japanese employees? A) "employee-of-the-month" programs B) extensive vacation time C) on-the-job challenges D) good health benefitsDSafe work environments motivate ________; challenges motivate ________. A) individualists; collectivists B) collectivists; individualists C) non-fatalists; fatalists D) materialists; non-materialistsBManagers should be more precise in their directions to subordinates when ________. A) the company has a philosophy of geocentrism B) the society believes age equals wisdom C) uncertainty avoidance is high D) power distance is lowCIn societies where trust is high, ________. A) people tend to be more future-oriented B) business costs are typically lower C) people tend to be more fatalistic D) family businesses are dominantB